- 41 preservice teachers for 2 studies:

study 1 (n = 36)

study 2 (n = 5)

- Action research and practicum in pre-K to grade 3 classrooms

- F2F

Independent variables:

Study 1: Implementation of action research in which topics of UDL principles, methods of reading and math, young children, and disabilities were taught; practicum in which UDL approaches were used in class by the preservice teachers to complete their action research.

Study 2: Practicum in which UDL principles were taught and training was conducted using teacher education materials developed by the Center for Assistive Special Technology.

Dependent variables (Data collection: Qualitative method):

- Interview using grounded theory.

- Preservice teachers’ understanding and implementation of UDL in their teaching.

- The effectiveness of UDL strategies in enhancing their teaching in terms of class structure, learning, engagement and accessibility for every student in class.

- Preservice teachers’ confidence in their knowledge about UDL and its application.

- Categorized as effective.



- 46: 6 faculty and 11 teachers taking a UDL online course; 17 faculty and teachers attending the first two-day F2F summer institute; 12 attending F2F event

- Online or F2F summer course

Independent variables:

- Instruction using the collaborative professional development model and UDL strategies (e.g., computer-aided instruction, productivity software, and instruction management software).

- Learning topics taught: UDL principles and networks, significance of electronic texts, learning barriers associated with students with special needs, and hands-on technology implementation (e.g., Thinking Reader, voice recognition, IntelliMathics, computer voice, other hands-on technology tools).

- Building learning team in which university faculty and teachers grouped as a team while taking online Blackboard class.

Dependent variables (Data collection: Qualitative method):

Written reflections (feedback) from teachers.

- Participants’ inefficient use of multiple technology devices for instruction due to a lack of skills in technology.

- Collaboration essential to produce progress in teaching practices.

- UDL approaches valued: Teachers’ appreciation of the assistive and adaptive technology to benefit their students with different learning backgrounds; adequate amount of practice needed to generalize their acquired technology knowledge in different contexts with continuous supports.

Categorized as effective.