- 928 undergraduate students

- A large undergraduate marketing management course during spring and fall

- F2F

Independent variables: Implementation of a UDL environment.

Dependent variables (Data collection: Quantitative method: Survey):

- Effectiveness of UDL environment on the last day of class.

- Students’ satisfaction.

- Perceived effectiveness, use of various instructional tools, and perceived learning.

- Actual learning: An average of student non-cumulative scores from three exams over the course.

- Actual use of tools: Total number of uses of each instructional tool (clicker and MindTap) analyzed by online analytics.

- The perceived effectiveness of each tool with significant difference (p < 0.001) as shown in the order from most to least: Perceived lecture notes

- (M = 4.5, SD = 0.89), PowerPoint (M = 4.4, SD = 0.84), clickers (M = 4.2, SD = 0.99), and MindTap (M = 3.9, SD = 1.22), indicating students’ preference for professors’ developed content over that of others; instructional tools available both in and outside the classroom (e.g., PowerPoint, MindTap, and lecture notes) perceived to be more effective than tools only accessible from class (e.g., clickers).

- Actual use of MindTap added 0.36 points to test scores (β = 0.36, p < 0.001), meanwhile the use of clickers was not significant (β = −0.004, p = 0.95).

- Perceived (self-reported) use and actual use of tools indicated a strong and positive correlation: Clickers (r = 0.22, p < 0.001) and MindTap (r = 0.10, p = 0.002).

- Categorized as effective.

- Multiple means of representation: Lecture in class, PowerPoint presentations, printed and electronic textbooks, MindTap ReadSpeaker (audio).

- Multiple means of expression: Lecture notes, clickers, MindTap flashcard, MindTap dictionary, MindTap notebook.

- Multiple means of engagement: Before-lecture assignments, fill-in-the-blank exercises, quizzes, and after-lecture assignments.


- 1195 faculty: 231 from a university in the U.S.;

315 from a university in Canada; 649 from 43 universities in Spain

- F2F

Independent variables:

In the U.S.: Intense 4-day workshop, e-newsletters, website resources; Topics of the workshop: Disability, legal means, accommodations, and alternative and inclusive strategies for instruction teaching and assessment.

In Canada: Workshop on faculty attitudes toward SDs and instructional practices.

In Spain: Unknown.

Dependent variables (Data collection: Quantitative method):

The Inclusive Teaching Strategies Inventory used.

- Faculty attitudes.

- Actions.

- Measurement dimensions: Accommodations, accessible course materials, course modification, inclusive lecture strategies, inclusive classroom, inclusive assessment, and disability laws and concepts.

- Attitude: The components that U.S. faculty believed significant were the provision of accessible course materials, inclusive classroom, inclusive lecture strategies, inclusive assessment, and course mediation; the components that Canadian faculty believed significant were the provision of accommodations and knowing laws and concepts of disability.

- Actions: Implementations by U.S. faculty: Inclusive assessment and course modifications in their teaching practices; Those by Canadian faculty: Integrated accommodations into their class; Those by Spanish faculty: Provision of accessible course materials and inclusive lecture strategies.

- The ratings of dimension of inclusive classrooms were similar across the three countries.

- Categorized as effective.



- 1367 students and instructors; 5 instructors; 1362 (106 [8%]: 1256): pre-survey (during the 3rd week of the semester);

1,223 (98 [8%]: 1125): post-survey (during the last two weeks of the semester)

- Large “gateway” introduction to psychology

- F2F

- Independent variables:

UDL training for the five instructors once a week for a semester: F2F training and provision of electronic tutorials of universally designed electronic materials.

Dependent variables (Data collection: Quantitative method: Survey):

- Effectiveness of UDL training as measured by students’ perceptions of instructors’ UDL implementation.

- Pre- and post-surveys contained the same questions.

- The instructors reported significant improvement in UDL strategy implementation.

- Areas with significant enhancement: Information presentation in multiple formats (t(2559) = 10.09, p < 0.0005, d = 0.40), provision of the electronic equivalents of traditional copies of information (t(2504) = 6.13, p < 0.0005, d = 0.24), online availability of required readings (t(2393) = 8.74, p < 0.0005, d = 0.36), clarity of instructional video (t(2520) = 9.62, p < 0.0005, d = 0.39), provision of prompt, constructive, and informative feedback (t(2515) = 8.14, p < 0.005, d = 0.33), and provision of visual supports for lecture and reading assignment (t(2556) = 5.14, p < 0.0005, d = 0.20).

- Categorized as effective.

- Multiple means of representation: Instructors presented information using lecture, text, graphics, audio, and video.

- Multiple means of expression: Students expressed their knowledge using traditional tests, written essays, projects, and portfolios.

- Multiple means of engagement: Investigation of students’ motivation and challenges and instructors’ enthusiasm for the subject matter.