- 26 preservice teachers and inservice teachers (16:10)

- Online degree certificate program for teachers

- F2F instruction for preservice teachers emphasizing assistive technology application

Independent variables:

An assignment activity for class after introduction to UDL: Review and revision of a previously used lesson plan with UDL applications and a focus on special learning needs.

Dependent variables (Data collection: Mixed method):

- Changes in revised lesson plans were quantified and categorized.

- Revisions should include students’ special needs in their learning and UDL instructional strategies using the three UDL principles.

- Participants’ reflections on their assignment were coded using a code book.

- Significant revisions using UDL approaches made by both pre- and inservice teachers; preservice teachers made more revisions using UDL principles than practicing teachers.

- Preservice teachers made more revisions in multiple means of expression than in systematic engagement.

- Analysis of participants’ reflection: Perception of UDL was a transformative practice that served as an effective model for inclusion for all students.

- Categorized as effective.


- 114 students

- F2F special education class with eLearning elements lasting for 1 hour 40 minutes per week

- Blended

Independent variables: Implementing a web-enabled F2F class focusing on online team collaboration (online teams of nine each) to complete eight assignments during the semester; a different case of a student with special academic needs (e.g., LD, ADHD, and gifted) was assigned to each team.

The design of the course using adult learning tenets and UDI principles: Course management system (CMS) used to combine eLearning elements with those of traditional class sessions.

Dependent variables (Data collection: Mixed method):

- Observation and analysis of participation.

- Online interactions: Discussion, products, and feedback.

- Course evaluations.

- Increased interaction: The blended course design enhanced students’ engagement in meaningful learning.

- Enhanced learning autonomy and self-directed learning: Choices of what to study, how to engage, and when to engage.

- Increased critical reflection skills through the learning community activities and skills of positive collaboration.

-The score of course evaluation was 9.2 out of 10 points (10 indicating outstanding).

- Categorized as effective.

- Equitable use: Enhanced and easy access by all students with multiple learning abilities (e.g., lecture notes, links to Internet resources, peer discussion thread).

- Tolerance of error: CMS used; students studied at their own pace.

- Minimizing physical efforts: Online and in-person availability of the course on an “anytime, anyplace basis.”

- Perceptible information: The design of CMS to easily access the instructional materials (e.g., all germane information located in a place).

- Community of learners: Course made use of team interactions and communications between students and between students and professors.

- Simple and intuitive: Design of the blended course resulted in effective interactions.


- 53 faculty: 43: First phase; 10: Second phase

- Online disability awareness program during the 2014-2015 academic year

Independent variables:

The online disability awareness program made up of three modules: Two or three hours to complete each module. Module 1 on disability laws, related services and accommodations, and disability. Module 2 on UDL principles and models of UDL strategies and instructional activities. Module 3 on ways to develop easy-to-approach teaching materials (e.g., syllabi, presentations, and documents).

Dependent variables (Data collection: Mixed method):

Quantitative measures:

- Faculty attitudes toward SDs using Interaction With Disabled Persons Scale.

- Pre- and post-surveys on faculty knowledge about disability laws, disability characteristics, accommodation policies, UDI, and accessibility of electronic materials, as discussed in the online disability awareness program.

- Qualitative analysis:

Thematic analysis method.

- Improvement of faculty attitudes toward SDs: A statistically significant difference between before and after completion of program (Pretest: M = 3.06, SD = 0.54; Posttest: M = 2.82, SD = 0.47); t(42) = 3.90, p < 0.01, d = 0.47; less discomfort in interactions with SDs; better understanding of SDs’ academic needs and thoughts/ideas.

- Increase in knowledge about SDs and principles of UDL: Significant increase from the pretest (M = 22.51, SD = 7.48) to the posttest (M = 36.09, SD = 2.42); t(43) = −12.19, p < 0.01, d = 2.44.

- Acquisition of new terms and concepts.

- Faculty’s confidence and willingness to implement UDI principles in their instruction: More than 86% of participants rating themselves as confident about disability laws, legal definition of disability, UDI, faculty responsibilities, making adequate accommodations, creating accessible documents, types of campus services available, and finding additional support.

- Categorized as effective.

- Text-, audio-, and video-based materials of the online program that allow faculty to access the program anywhere and anytime.

- Multiple means of representation: Hands-on activities, discussion, computer-aided instruction, productivity software, online delivery system, (e.g., Blackboard).

- Multiple means of expression: Productivity software, online delivery system, (e.g., Blackboard).

- Multiple means of engagement: Discussion, productivity software, utilizing electronic media, online delivery system, (e.g., Blackboard).

- Beside the implementation, to implement the effective workshop, Technology Needs Survey was conducted prior to the workshop to plan it.


- 413 undergraduate students

- Introductory geology and geography

- F2F

Independent variables:

Captioned conditioning (Close-captioned TED Talk on climate change).

Dependent variables (Data collection: A composite score from two―captioning or no-captioning―conditioned groups): Test booklets used to test remembrance of information: Short-answer, 12 fill-in-the-blank questions, and multiple choice.

- Support of close captioning to recall information.

- Statistical significance between two groups (t(411) = 5.105; p = 0.000; d = 0.51; Captioning group: M = 18.49; SD = 3.37, n = 194; No-captioning group: M = 16.67; SD = 3.81, n = 219).

- Exposure to video instruction and captioning: 7% (n = 29) with no exposure to a course-related video; 60% (n = 247) with occasional exposure to close captioning while course-related videos were incorporated; 30% (n = 126) with no exposure to close captioning while course-related videos were incorporated.

- Categorized as effective.

- Multiple means of representation: Close-captioning video.