Terms selected

Metcalfe and Chalk (1985)

Carlquist (1991, 2001)

Caballé (1993)

Acevedo-Rodriguez (2005)

Isnard and Silk (2009)

Angyalossy et al. (2012)

Angyalossy et al. (2015)

Stem irregular conformation

Flatted or winged stem; furrowed stem; lobed stem

Flatted stem; furrowed stem; lobed stem

Lobed stem

Stem with irregular conformation; lobed stem

Interxylary phloem

Interxylary phloem

Interxylary phloem; included phloem

Interxylary phloem

Interxylary phloem (without cambial inclusion)

Phloem arcs

Included phloem (strands)

Discrete vascular bundles

Interxylary phloem (black spot)

Interxylary phloem (with cambial inclusion)

Furrowed xylem

Furrowed xylem; furrows wedge-shaped; deeply furrowed xylem

Furrowed xylem

Quarters; lobed

Xylem forming across of 4 - 12 arms; lobed xylem

Lobed cambium; irregular cambium

Furrowed xylem; phloem arcs/wedges

Furrowed xylem by phloem arcs/wedges

Xylem in plates

Narrow radiating plates

Xylem in plates

Axial vascular elements in segments (separated by larger rays)

Segments alternating with very wide xylem and phloem rays

Dissected xylem

Fissured xylem

Fibrous woody parts dispersed by parenchyma proliferation

Blocks with closed contours; blocks

Multiple and lobed cambia

Xylem dispersed by parenchyma divisions

Dissected xylem

Successive cambia

Xylem and phloem concentrically alternating

Successive cambia

Radially and tangentially in rays and rings

Successive concentric layers; concentric bands

Successive and directional cambia; concentric cambia

Successive cambia

Successive cambia

Compound stem

Compound xylem mass

Compound secondary xylem; compound xylem mass

Duplicated or multiple cylinder;

Ploystelic stems

Compound vascular cylinders

Multiple vascular cylinders forming a single stem

Pericycle parenchyma cells dedifferentiation

Intraxylary phloem

Intraxylary (internal) phloem

Intraxylary phloem

External vascular cylinders

Ploystelic stems

External secondary cylinders

Neoformation of secondary vascular cylinders

External secondary cylinders

Secondary growth of external primary vascular bundles