PARR stages

Learning techniques

Learner’s roles

Teacher’s roles

Teaching activities

Learning activities

Types of interaction

Pro-acting- engagement

- Search

- Emerge

Information seeker and navigator

Information distributor and facilitator

e-lectures, e-stories, audio and visual aids and demos based teaching, distant teaching and learning conversation, e-tutorials

Out-of-class activities: Observation, watching, reading, summarizing, note-taking,

mind mapping, making percept graph (what, who, when, where, how, and why) about course content soft and hard materials

- Leaner-interface interaction

- Learners-content interaction

- Learner-support interaction

- Learner-instructor interaction

Acting- engagement

- Present

- Share

Knowledge generator

Knowledge mediator

Face-to-face lectures, teaching and learning conference, lab-based activities, role play, brain storming, collaborative teaching

In-class-activities: Presentations, asking questions, notation, compare,

experimental data interpretation, and lab report write-up, group-based learning activities (collaborative learning)

well-structured problem solving

- Learner-learner interaction

- Learner-instructor interaction

Reflecting- engagement

- Connect

- Elaborate

Cognition builder and creator

Cognition activator, and Cognition Coach

Cognitive-guided instruction,

cognitive coaching, case study, brain storming,

focus group technique, triangulation teaching, teaching and learning conference

In-class and out-of-class activities:

Data interpretation,

parallel problem solving,

report writing,

learn to graph and tabulate data,

case evaluation

- Learner-learner interaction

- Learner-instructor interaction

- Learner-expert interaction

- Learners-learners interaction

Re-acting- engagement

- Model

- Transform

Cognition distributor and manager

Cognition maintainer

Games and simulation,

intelligent tutoring systems,

online debate,

what is the big idea activities

Out-of-class activities:

Prepare oral presentations, prepare project report, solving other students’ problems, answering other students’ questions, adding new learning materials to the course website, evaluating other courses’ e-materials based on personal-made criteria

- Learner-context interaction