Development paradigms

Theoretical debates

Civic participation

Social justice policies

Sustainability policies

Habitat I, 1976

Modernization (1960s) and structuralism (1970s).

Dualistic perceptions of informal housing in the Global South.

Top-down policy approaches leading activists to demand the participation of the civil society.

Upgrading and regularization of informal settlements and services.

The conference overlooked environmental sustainability.

Habitat II, 1996

Neoliberalism, globalization and sustainable human settlements.

Despite recognizing housing as a human right, the conferenced supported neoliberal housing policies.

Participation of civil society (NGOS) in the conference and the NGO forum.

Cities without slums, land rights to prevent evictions, poverty alleviation, public participation, and human rights a disregard of inequality considerations.

Nexus between human settlements and the environment (sustainable human settlements).

Habitat III, 2016

Post-neoliberalism, sustainable cities and the Right to the City.

The Right to the City, poverty alleviation, inclusion, equity, and a gender approach.

Encouraged multi-stakeholder partnerships between civil society and the private sector to enable smart city management.

The Right to the City, participatory planning, slum upgrading, equitable access to services and the environment.

Cities are interconnected urban systems, supports compact development, sustainable and resilient development and climate change considerations.