Component of the emotion generative process (Gross, 1998; Mikolajczak, 2012)

Subscales of the CERQ-Child (Garnefski et al., 2007)

Subscales of the COPE-questionnaire

(De Corte et al., 2011)

Subscales of the CERS-M

Situation selection

- Task utility self-persuasion (e.g. “Even if I do not like it very much, I still try to solve the problem because it is useful for me”).

- Dysfunctional avoidance (e.g. “In order not to live through an unpleasant time, I tell myself that I will solve the problem later”)

Situation modification

- Planning (e.g. “I think about what would be the best for me to do”)

- Active coping (e.g. “I concentrate my efforts on doing something about the problem”)

- Planning (e.g. “I think hard about what steps to take”)

- Restraint coping (e.g. “I’m not doing anything until the time is right”)

- Seeking support for instrumental reasons (e.g. “I ask people who have had similar experiences what they did”)

- Help seeking (e.g. “I ask the teacher to help me to solve the problem”)

- Negative self-talk (e.g., “I say to myself that I have always had difficulty in solving math problems and that it is not going to change”)

Attentional deployment

- Rumination (e.g. “Again and again, I think of how I feel about it”)

- Positive refocusing (e.g. “I think of nicer things that have nothing to do with it”)

- Suppression of competing activities (e.g. “I concentrate on the resolution of the problem and I put the other things on the side”)

- Denial (e.g. “I say to myself that it is not true”)

- Mental disengagement (e.g. “I dream about things other than this”)

- Behavioral disengagement (e.g. “I give up trying to reach my goal”)

- Turning to religion (e.g. “I believe in God’s help”)

- Brief attentional relaxation (e.g. “I take small breaks ?looking out the window, breathing deeply, etc.― when I solve math problems”)

- Negative self-talk (e.g. “I’m focusing on the anger, sadness, boredom or despair that I feel and I can no longer continue to solve the problem”)

Cognitive change

- Positive reappraisal (e.g. “I think that I can learn from it”)

- Putting into perspective (e.g. “I think that worse things can happen”)

- Other-blame (e.g. “I think that others are to blame”)

- Self-blame (e.g. “I think that I am to blame”)

- Catastrophizing (e.g. “I often think that it’s much worse than what happens to others”)

- Acceptance (e.g. “I think that I have to accept it”)

- Positive reinterpretation and growth (e.g. “I look for something positive in what is happening”)

- Acceptance (e.g. “I accept the fact that it happens”)

- Joking (e.g. “I laugh at the situation”)

- Task utility self-persuasion (e.g. “Even if I dislike solving math problems, I tell myself that it is important to do so in order to be able to understand them and thereby to succeed”).

- Negative self-talk (e.g., “I tell myself that it is terrible not being able to solve the problem and that I am sure that it only happens to me”)

Response modulation

- Alcohol-drug disengagement (e.g. “I consume alcohol or drugs to feel better”)

- Brief attentional relaxation (e.g. “I put down my pen a few seconds and stretch my arms”).

Emotion expression

- Seeking support for emotional reasons (e.g. “I talk to someone about how I feel”)

- Seeking support for instrumental reasons (e.g. “I ask people who have had similar experiences what they did”)

- Focus on and venting emotions (e.g. “I am upset and I express my emotions”)

- Emotion expression (e.g. “I tell my neighbor that the problem makes me angry, sad, hopeless, or bored”)