Area of study


Ghosh et al. [45]

Saptamukhi creek, Sundarban

Recorded CO2 emission as 56.7 ± 37.4 mmolm−2day−1

Biswas et al. [46]

Estuaries (Muriganga, Saptamukhi, and Thakuran) of the Sundarban mangrove ecosystem

Dissolved CH4 concentrations in the Sundarban estuarine systems ranged between 11.0 and 129.0 nmolL−1 with emission rates between 1.97 and 134.6 μmol m2day−1

Rajkumar et al. [47]

Adyar River and Estuary

Emissions fluxes for the whole Adyar system ~2.5 × 108 g CH4yr−1 and ~2.4 × 106 g N2Oyr−1

Datta et al. [48]

Integrated rain-fed rice-fish farming system

Fish rearing increased CH4 emission from field plots planted to 2 varieties of rice cultivars with 112% increase in CH4 emission and 74% respectively in both the varieties. On the contrary, fish stocking reduced N2O emission from field plots planted to both the rice varieties.

Selvam et al. [49]

45 water bodies include seven lakes, 10 ponds, 11 rivers, six open wells, five reservoirs, three springs, and three canals in Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Andhra Pradesh

The total CH4 flux (including ebullition and diffusion) from

the 45 systems ranged from 0.01 to 52.1 mmolm−2d−1. The mean surface water CH4 concentration was 3.8 to 14.5 µM CO2 fluxes ranged from 28.2 to 262.4 mmolm−2d−1

Linto et al. [50]

Mangrove-associated waters of the Andaman Islands (Wright Myo; Kalighat)

Estimated mean tidal creek emissions were ~23 - 173 mmolm−2day−1 CO2 and ~0.11 - 0.47 mmolm−2day−1 CH4

Total emissions from contiguous inshore waters are ~1.9 × 1011 molCO2yr−1 and ~3.0 × 108 molCH4yr−1 from mangrove-influenced water

Attermeyer et al. [51]

Small water-harvesting lake in South India

Analyzed the effect of floating macrophytes on CO2 and CH4 emissions.

The CO2 and CH4 emissions from areas covered by water hyacinths were found reduced by 57% compared with that of open water.

Shaher et al. [52]

Sewage-fed aquaculture ponds, East Kolkata Wetlands

Observed mean summer air-water CH4 fluxes in the sewage fed aquaculture ponds having a depth of 1.1 m and 0.6 m were 24.79 ± 12.02 mgm−2h−1 and 6.05 ± 3.14 mgm−2h−1 respectively and CH4 fluxes in the ponds were found positively correlated with water temperature

Kawade et al. [7]

Tehri hydropower reservoir, India

Tehri reservoir is a source of CO2 with gross CO2 emission of about 0.30 ± 0.15 Gg CO2km−2yr−1 and net CO2 emission of 26.89 Gg CO2yr−1