Methods and change in polysomic polyploid


Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium

Diploid and autotetraploid

Genes loss and new f ragments appearance

Sequence-related amplified polymorphisms (SRAP), made 1.1% lost fragments and 1.6% new fragment appeared


20 flowering plants


Gene loss

Random gene loss under the selection pressure of singletons


Solanum sp.

Haploid, diploid and autotetraploid

Change in gene expression

cDNA microarray 9000 genes showed 10% genes that change expression belong to ploidies in both foliage and root tips



Monoploid, diploid, triploid

Methylation, gene expression, and small RNA

About 25,500 genes investigated methylation of a single gene with 22,751 methylated genes presented in all monoploid, diploid and triploid rice. When comparing each pair of ploidy 64 genes that were pivotal different DNA methylation, sequencing small RNA profiles detected 36 novel miRNAs divergent level of expression related to ploidy level



Diploid and Autotetraploid


Methylated class II of transposable elements that influence gene expression



Diploid and Autotetraploid

Cytosine methylation

Cytosine methylation of genome-wide made large body size and enhance phytochemical in autotetraploid


Helianthus decapetalus

Diploid, Autotetraploid, autohexaploid

Gene expression

Populations of a single species can diverse in gene expression patterns


Chrysanthemum nankingense

Diploid and autotetraploid


The rapid growth and development of autotetraploid were promoted by a lot of target genes repressed by miRNAs


Brassica rapa

Diploid and autotetraploid

Methylation and DNA fragment change

Nearly 0.58% of changed fragments when using cDNA-AFLP methods, DNA methylation changes about 1.7% of fragments by using MSAP


Malus × domestica Borkh

Diploid and autotetraploid

Methylation, the effect of ploidy in some gene expression

Similar between the two ploidy levels (28.0% vs 27.3%) with the frequency of methylated restriction sites, no discernible effect on ploidy in the expression of MET1, DRM2, CTM


Phlox drummondii Hooker

The difference between generations of autopolyploid (C0, C1, C2, and C3)


Polymorphism autotetraploid C0, C1, C2 and C3 were 2.8%, 1.6%, 2.1% and 3.2%, respectively by using RAPD


Arabidopsis thaliana

Diploid, autotriploid, autotetraploid

Loss and gain of DNA sequence

Loss and gain of DNA sequences of the first generation of autopolyploid (short term “revolutionary alteration”) while the long term “revolutionary alteration” was a little change…




Cis-regulatory elements

Cis-regulatory elements showed the extensive difference in regulatory elements and networks



Diploid and tetraploid

IiCPK2 expression

Root, stem, and leaf of the tetraploid plant were more expressions than diploid plant


Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro

Triploid, hexaploid, dodecaploid

Differential expression gene, EXPB3, and TCP

8396 differential expression genes that belong to cell growth and differentiation groups promoting growth and development, EXPB3 and TCP related to cell proliferation and differentiation


Arabidopsis thaliana



Having translocation of 45S gene between chromosome 3 and 4




Inducing tetraploid by colchicine

Colchicine inhibited genes associated with microtubule, spindle, chromosomal kinetochore, vesicle, cellulose and pathways of cytoplasm movement, chromatid separation, membrane, and cell wall development