First level index

Second level index

Definition of indicators

Economic risk

Regional heterogeneity

Regional heterogeneity refers to the difference of natural endowments among different regions, such as natural, economic, humanistic and social factors.

Public finance budget

The public budget revenue means that the government raises the revenue of the tax as the main body by means of the national political power and social management.

Internal effect

The “internal effect” refers to the phenomenon that the government departments seek private interests rather than public interests, emphasizing the self-interest and limited rationality of the government departments.

power capital

“Power capitalization” refers to the act of obtaining political privileges by using the public power of the government and the economic activities of the capital, so as to seek the unfair additional interests or monopoly interests of individuals or groups.

transaction cost

Transaction cost refers to the cost that people have to pay voluntarily and cooperate with each other in a certain social relationship, which corresponds to the “production cost”.

Market risk

Quasi market mechanism

Quasi market mechanism is a form of intermediate between Bureaucracy and free market, which is built by the government and introduced into competition in the field of public service.

Market access standards

Market access standards generally refer to the extent to which goods, labor and capital are allowed to compete in the market.

Incomplete contracts

Incomplete contract means that the contracting parties cannot fully foresee various situations that may arise in the performance period, so that a complete and detailed contract clause cannot be achieved.

Market defects

Market defect means that the market mechanism alone cannot reach the optimal allocation state of resources.

Social risk

Institutional change

Institutional change refers to the dynamic process of the new system (or new institutional structure) producing, replacing or changing the old system.

Voluntary failure

Voluntary failure refers to the phenomenon that voluntary or non-governmental organizations or individuals are experiencing various problems in their volunteer activities, which makes volunteer activities unable to perform normally.

Social trust

Social trust mainly refers to a set of universally similar attitudes towards social activities or institutions such as public affairs, public organizations, interpersonal relationships and other social members.

Cooperation mechanism

Cooperation is a joint action and way of cooperation between individuals and individuals, groups and groups in order to achieve common purposes. The basic conditions of cooperation are consistent goals, unified understanding and norms, mutual trust of cooperation atmosphere and certain material basis for cooperation to exist and develop.

Management risk

Quality of managers

The chief executive’s quality is mainly embodied in political accomplishment, professional ability, leadership ability, moral quality and so on, which directly affects the government's management ability.

Management Agency

Refers to the administrative organs in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution and other relevant laws, in accordance with certain procedures set up, exercising national administrative power, which perform various administrative functions of the state organs, is an important part of national institutions, also known as administrative organs, government agencies etc.

Institutional norms

The Institutional norm is a general term for all rules and regulations, regulations, rules, procedures, standards, and methods to restrict the behavior of all members in the process of organization management.