Immediate and early complications

Late complications

Severe pain

Urinary problems (painful urination, urinary tract infections


Vaginal hygienic problems

Infections and sepsis

Scar tissue and keloid formation

Urinary problems urine retension

Sexual problems and penetration difficulties)

Injury to surrounding genital tissue

Increased risk of childbirth complications

Shock (haemorrhagic and septic shock)

Need for later surgeries: (defibulation). repeated opening and closing procedures (Redo procedure)


Psychological problems (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, low self-esteem)