Baltieri et al. [27]

Revista Brasileira de Cardiologia, 2012

Transcutaneous electrical diaphragmatic stimulation in diaphragmatic paralysis after cardiac surgery

Observe the influence of TEDS on diaphragmatic paralysis after MRS

n = 1

Submitted to MRS

Pre-operatively assessed by X-ray, 30 physical therapy sessions without TEDS and another 20 physical therapy sessions with TEDS (total = 50 sessions or 10 weeks) of physical therapy in the PO of MRS

30 sessions without TEDS = there was no symptomatic improvement of diaphragmatic dysfunction and the previous image remained

on the chest X-ray

20 additional sessions

(10 weeks) with TEDS = partial resolution of diaphragmatic paralysis was observed

Rachwalik [25]

Clinical and Experimental Medicine Letters, 2008

Spirometric changes after valve surgery

Elucidate the degree of recovery of spirometric values after 6 months of open CS

n = 26

Those who underwent valve surgery

Preoperatively assessed, 5 days, 2.5 months, and 6 months of PO

2.5 months = 20% reduction in TV, FEV1, FEF25%, FEF50% FEF75%

6 months = all variables persisted 5% below preoperative values

Westerdahl et al. [22] Respiratory Medicine, 2003

Pulmonary function 4 months after coronary artery bypass graft surgery

Describe lung function and pain 4 months after MRS

n = 25

Those who underwent MRS

Preoperatively assessed, 4 days and 4 months of PO

4 months = TV, IC, FEV1, FRC, TPC, DLCO, PEF were reduced from 6 to 13% in relation to preoperative values

Berrizbeitia et al. [19]

Chest, 1998

Effects of sternotomy and coronary bypass surgery on postoperative pulmonary mechanics

To determine the effect of median sternotomy and types of grafts on lung function in the PO of MRS

n = 55

Those who underwent MRS

Preoperatively assessed and 6 to 8 weeks of PO

6 to 8 weeks = reduction in FVC, %FVC, FEF 25% - 75%, % FEF 25% - 75%, more evident in patients who used IMA as a graft

Dimopoulou et al. [28]

Chest, 1998

Phrenic nerve dysfunction after cardiac operations

Electrophysiologically determine risk factors for the development of phrenic nerve dysfunction after CS

n = 63

Those who underwent MRS and valve surgery

Preoperatively assessed, 24 hours, 7 days, and

30 days of PO

30 days = 8 out of 10 patients still had a reduction in the latency time of phrenic nerve conduction

Shenkman et al. [21]

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 1997

The effects of cardiac surgery on early and late

pulmonary function

Assess the immediate and late effects of CS on pulmonary function tests

n = 50

Those who underwent MRS or valve surgery

Preoperative assessment, 3 weeks and 3.5 months of PO

3 weeks = greater reduction in FEV1, FEF 50%, FEF 75%, FVC, MVV, and PEF

3 months = increased variables but they did not reach preoperative values

Johnson et al. [24]

Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anaesthesia, 1996

Respiratory function after cardiac surgery

Relating pulmonary dysfunction to the presence of respiratory symptoms in patients who underwent CS

n = 138

Those who underwent MRS or valve surgery

Assessed on admission and 8 weeks of PO

8 weeks = respiratory symptoms (cough, discharge, wheezing, and dyspnoea) are correlated with the presence of atelectasis and with reduced respiratory muscle strength, and spirometric values

Vaidya et al. [26]

The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery, 1996

Spirometric changes after open mitral surgery

Assess spirometric values after valve reconstruction surgery

n = 31

Those who underwent valve reconstruction surgery

Preoperative assessment and 3 months of PO

3 months = 17 out of 31 patients had low-value spirometry