Latent variables

Observed variables (Likert scale from 1 to 5)

Perceived price

Adequate price, low price.

Perceived quality

Good, high, good value for money.


Appealing, informative, practical.

Financial benefits

“Thanks to the retail brand, I get a good deal’’; “Retail brands enable me to save money’’.

Decision-making benefits

“Retail brands make it easier for me to choose”; “retail brands save me time because I know that this retail brand is middle range”.

Store service

Cleanness and modernity of the store; retail brand visibility on shelves, Retail brand in-store visibility; rigor of merchandising; staff in contact (skills and availability).

Loyalty (to the brand and store)

Intent to buy the retail brand; “I feel I am loyal to my store”.