Definition of institutional capital

Research method

Measurement index




embedded in institutional


Field research

Take number of government projects obtained by the enterprise to measure institutional capital. A seven-level likert scale including three aspects is adopted to measure the resources obtained from governments and the state. The questionnaires are filled by the CEO or corporate executives, focusing on the extent to which their organizations: 1) access to government incentives in exports; 2) participate in the exhibition to get support from the local government; and 3) gain government support for participating in domestic and overseas exhibitions.

Lu, et al. (2010)


Desk research

Use single objective indicator to measure institutional capital, named ISO certification. Taking ISO certification as set a dummy variable, the paper assigns 1 to institutional capital when the enterprise passes ISO certification, and 0 when the enterprise did not pass.

Zhang, Y. L, et al. (2012)


made up by

certain standards and values

Field research

Following the logic of commonality of values, integrity of rules and effectiveness of mechanisms to design the questionnaire and measure institutional capital form these three aspects using a five-level likert scale.

Jiang Y. J.,

Zhang Y. R. (2013)


provided by

government or private agencies

Field research

The article defines 15 kinds of ways to obtain funds from the government and private sectors. Respondents are asked the ways in which they get money from the above funds, and the frequency of obtaining the funds by using five Likert scale (1 = not often; 5 = very frequently). Both the existence and the valve of institutional capital are measured in this paper. It assigns 1 to institutional capital when the enterprise has gained funds from at least one way and 0 when the enterprise never gets funds. It assigns 0 to 15 to institutional capital according to the number of ways in which the enterprise gets funds.

Zhang J., Howard V. A. (2011)

Value-adding institutional


Desk research

Institutional capital of private entrepreneurs contains geopolitical capital, cognitive capital, political capital and literacy capital. 1) Entrepreneurs’ geopolitical capital is measured by the place in which the entrepreneurs is born and grow, business location and political association. 2) Cognitive capital is measured by the professional title, education level and starting model of entrepreneurs. 3) Literacy capital is measured by the age and military experience of entrepreneurs. 4) Political capital is measured by the political position and working years of entrepreneurs.

Zhou Y. M.,

Li X. J. (2013)