Variables  Study group  Control group  Statistical significance χ²  Statistical sign. paired ttest  Risk ratio  95% confidence limit 
Machover index  n = 70  n = 157 




・ Means  3.98  4.31 




・ In the point position 


 p = 0.0300  3.3  1.9  5.7 
・ The missing division 


 p = 0.0447  0.3  0.1  0.8 
The wholeness index  n = 70  n = 157 




・ Means  17.35  18.02 
 p = 0.290 


・ Differences between the groups 

 p = 0.0571 



・ In the drawing of lines 

 p = 0.0839 


