Study Design



Long-term adjuvant endocrine therapy

Van Dyke, et al.‎ [7]

Prospective longitudinal

No association found between long-term endocrine therapy and neurocognitive performance

Major oncologic surgery

Plas M, et al.‎ [8]

Prospective longitudinal

- 12% of patients overall exhibit cognitive decline at 3-months following major oncologic surgery

- 18% of patients aged >75 years exhibit cognitive decline at 3 months following major oncologic surgery

Chronic opioid usage

Kurita GP, et al.‎ [9]

Prospective cross-sectional, multi-center

- A third of opioid-treated patients exhibit possible (MMSEa score 24 - 26) or definite (MMSE score < 24) cognitive dysfunction

- Patients receiving daily dose of 400 mg or more had 1.75 times higher odds of having a lower MMSE score compared with those receiving daily dose lower than 80 mg

Cancer-related comorbidities

Post-traumatic stress

Hermelink, et al.‎ [18]

Prospective longitudinal

Cancer patients exhibited subtle cognitive deficits, irrespective of chemotherapy, which is mediated by post-traumatic stress


Menning, et al.‎ [13]

Prospective longitudinal

Cancer patients exhibited cognitive impairment prior to receipt of chemotherapy; effect was mediated by fatigue and not observed when fatigue accounted for


Polsky, et al.‎ [14]

Prospective longitudinal

Hazard Ratio = 3.55 (95% CI 2.79 - 4.52) for depressive symptoms within 2 years following a cancer diagnosis


Age-related cognitive decline

American Cancer Society‎ [3]


47% of cancer survivorships in the US is 70 years of age or older