Max et al., 2005

n = 143 5 - 14 years old TBI followed in five trauma center using semistructured psychiatric interviews, no preinjury ADHD

SADHD in the first 6 months after injury occurred in 18 of 115 (16%) of returning participants. All subtypes of ADHD occurred

Narad et al., 2018

n = 187 children with no preinjury ADHD TBI DSM-Oriented Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Problems Scale of the parent-reported Child Behavior Checklist

Of the 187 children, 48 (25.7%) met the definition of SADHD. Severe TBI was associated with SADHD compared with the control group (81 in the TBI group and 106 in the control group)

Li et al., 2018

n = 418 children TBI longitudinal study Child Behavior Checklist was used to measure child iDSM-IV-oriented ADHD at ages 6 (Wave I) and 12 years (Wave II)

57 children (13.6%) had a single injury and 42 (10.0%) had multiple injuries before the age of 6 years. The long-term effect of multiple mild injury on ADHD at age 12 years was significant (R2 = 0.103, P < 0.05), even after controlling for ADHD at age 6 years

Ilie et al., 2015

n = 3993 cross-sectional sample TBI surveyed by Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI)

Among adults with a history of TBI, 6.6% screened ADHD positive, and 5.9% reported having been diagnosed with ADHD in their lifetime. Adults with lifetime TBI had significantly greater odds of scoring positive on the ADHD/ASRS screen, and of reporting a history of diagnosed ADHD than without TBI, when holding values of sex, age, and education constant.

Stojanovski et al., 2019

TBI n = 418, no TBI n = 3193 The relationship of TBI was examined by assessing: 1) ADHD polygenic score (discovery sample ADHD n = 19,099, control sample n = 34,194), 2) basal ganglia volumes, and 3) fractional anisotropy in the corpus callosum and corona radiata.

Youths with TBI reported ADHD symptom severity compared with those without TBI. genetic predisposition to ADHD does not increase the risk for ADHD symptoms associated with TBI ADHD symptoms associated with TBI may be a result of a mechanical insult rather than neurodevelopmental factors.