Measured Variables Descriptive Statistics (N = 146) Univariate Normality Tests (N = 146) Mean (M) St.Dev. (SD) Skew Kurtosis Kolmogorov-Smirnov Shapiro-Wilk Shapiro-Francia Anderson-Darling ITEM 1 4.06 1.06 −.95 .06 .26 .81 .81 10.67 ITEM 2 4.58 .95 −2.65 6.56 .44 .50 .50 30.62 ITEM 3 4.60 .92 −2.49 5.61 .46 .50 .50 32.19 ITEM 4 4.35 .95 −1.74 2.89 .32 .69 .69 16.67 ITEM 5 4.29 .89 −1.19 1.16 .31 .76 .76 14.05 ITEM 6 4.17 1.08 −1.16 .46 .31 .76 .76 14.05 ITEM 7 4.05 1.04 −.96 .33 .25 .81 .82 10.00 ITEM 8 4.29 .94 −1.39 1.69 .31 .74 .75 14.22 ITEM 9 4.29 .94 −1.39 1.48 .30 .74 .74 14.43 ITEM 10 4.21 .96 −1.51 2.44 .25 .75 .75 12.60 ITEM 11 4.34 .97 −1.8 3.1 .32 .69 .69 16.83 ITEM 12 4.12 .83 −1.02 1.21 .28 .80 .80 11.68 ITEM 13 3.96 1.06 −.83 0 .22 .84 .84 8.64 ITEM 14 4.03 .98 −.81 .04 .22 .84 .84 9.10 ITEM 15 3.79 1.41 −.84 −.7 .26 .79 .80 11.84 ITEM 16 4.11 1.13 −1.17 .37 .28 .76 .77 13.53 ITEM 17 3.95 1.34 −1.03 −.26 .28 .76 .77 13.83 ITEM 18 3.80 1.1 −.78 .02 .23 .86 .86 7.27 ITEM 19 4.45 .88 −1.71 2.69 .37 .67 .67 19.74 ITEM 20 4.28 .9 −1.31 1.52 .29 .76 .76 13.37 Multivariate Normality Tests Mardia’s Skew Mardia’s kurtosis Henze-Zirkler’s Doornik-Hansen (df) E-statistic Royston Total sample (N = 146) 2841.06 14.02 1.08 459.37 3.56 1181.82