The existing program

The direction of the required program




Content-and process-focused

Learners mainly hear about activities related to science.

Learners do science activities for themselves.

Scientific knowledge and activity are presented as hardened facts.

Scientific knowledge and activity are constructed and discussed socially.

The existing discovery or tangible facts are studied and memorized.

Scientific facts are discovered through observations and experiments in order to establish scientific theory.

The chance about reflection-in-action or reflection-on-action is insufficient.

The chance about reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action is sufficient.

Superficial learning

Deep understanding and learning

Leaning science

Doing science