Work done


Haifeng et al. [62]

The reductive leaching of manganese from low grade manganese ore in H2SO4 using cane molasses as reductant 12MnO2 + C6H12O6 + 12H2SO4 → 12MnSO4 + 6CO2 + 18H2O.

Increase in concentration of cane molasses leads to leach efficiency of manganese and causes the concentration to decrease accordingly.

Pagnanelli et al. [63]

Recovery of zinc and manganese from spent batteries by different leaching system. Sulphuric acid/oxalic acid and sulphuric acid/hydrogen peroxide.

Low zinc content in the range 50 to 120 mg/L was extracted by hydrometallurgical technique.

Hariphrasad et al. [26]

Mn recovery from medium grade ore using a waste cellulosic reductant.

12MnO2 + (C6H10O3)n・12nH2SO4 → 12nMnSO4 + 6nCO2 + 17nH2O.

High % of Mn extraction (93.1%) was obtained under the following conditions: pulp density 10%, time 8 hrs, sulphuric acid 5% (v/v), temperature 90˚C and reductant to ore ratio 0.5.

Baba et al. [65]

Lixiviation of manganiferrous aluminosilicate mineral in hydrochloric acid.

The results showed that the rate increases with hydrogen (H+) concentration, reaction temperature but decreases with particle size.

Yuksel et al. [64]

Dissolution kinetic of calcinated manganese ore in acetic acid solutions.

It was observed that the dissolution of calcinated rhodochrosite increased with increasing reaction temperature; stirring speed, reaction time and acid concentration and decreasing particle size and solid to liquid ratio.

Jingjing et al. [54]

Reduction of low grade manganese oxide ore by biomass roasting.

The recovery of manganese can reach over 97% by using sawdust as reductant. The optimal conditions are as follows; particle size (150 µm, Mn/sawdust 5:1, roasting temp. 60˚C for 40 min, H2SO4 concentration 1 mol/L and liquid/solid ration 10:1.

Haghsherias et al. [25]

Leaching recovery of zinc, cobalt and manganese from zinc purification residue.

The results show that 50 g/L is a suitable acid concentration for the leaching of the HFC cobalt and manganese residual content. The addition of 5 g/L of H2O2 as a reductive agent has the best influence on both the cobalt and manganese leaching process. Greater amount of H2O2 do not have a significant effect.

Kono et al. [58]

Separation and recovery of Mn, Cu, Ni and Co from sulphurous acid leach liquor of sea nodules.

In this process, Cu, Ni, Co and Mn were completely leached with 0.2 M H2SO3. After oxidation by aeration, Fe2+ was precipitated as Fe(OH)3 at pH 4.3 - 4.4. Subsequently, manganese was precipitated as MnCO3 by addition of (NH4)2 CO3, while Cu, Ni and Co in the solution were stabilized as ammine complexes with NH3.

Gega and Walkowlak [68]

Leaching of zinc and manganese from used up zinc-carbon batteries using aqueous sulphuric acid solutions.

The final optimum conditions for leaching process were determined to be 2.0 M sulphuric acid, a process temperature of 60˚C and a solid to liquid ratio of 1:100 under these conditions 100% of zinc and about 50% of manganese could be leached in the time of 1 hour.