Inclusion criteria

1) Subjective symptoms or persistence of subfoveal fluid on OCT for more than 3 months but shorter than 6 months

2) Patients whose follow-up period was available for more than 12 months after 1/3-dose verteporfin PDT

3) Presence on FA of active angiographic leakage secondary to CSC

4) Choroidal vascular hyperpermeability and abnormal dilation of choroidal vasculature, consistent with a diagnosis of CSC

5) Difficult to treat by Laser photocoagulation (LP) because of leakage from the subfoveal, parafoveal, or broad area

Exclusion criteria

1) Auto fluorescence shows some atrophy RPE

2) Symptoms more than 6 months

3) Presence of CNV or other maculopathy or other ocular diseases that could affect visual acuity

4) Presence of choroidopathy that may affect choroidal thickness

5) No history of PDT, LP, anti VEGF injections, TA injections or other treatments within 3 months before 1/3-dose PDT for CSC

6) Optic media opacity that could interfere with adequate acquisition of OCT, FA, and ICG images

7) Absolute contraindication for 1/3-dose PDT or FA

8) Myopia (≤6 D), hyperopia (>6 D) and aphakia