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Prospective, comparative outcome study
(repeated measures design)
To contrast the
relative impact of differing therapeutic interventions for trauma victims, carried out by the same therapist.
12 sessions of either Cognitive
Behavior Therapy (CBT), or CBT coupled with Compassionate Mind Training (CMT). Data was gathered pre-therapy
and post-therapy, using three self-report questionnaires: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; Impact of
Events Scale; the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS).
A non-random convenience sample (N = 32) of participants, referred for therapy
following a traumatic incident.
Participants in both conditions experienced a highly statistically significant reduction in symptoms of anxiety, depression, avoidant behavior, intrusive thoughts and hyper-arousal symptoms post-therapy. Participants in the combined CBT and CMT condition developed statistically significant higher self-compassion scores post-therapy than the CBT-only group [F (1.30) = 4.657, p ≤ 0.05]. There was no significant difference between treatment groups.
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Prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded end point evaluation clinical trial.
To assess the safety, the acceptability, the potential benefits, and
associated change processes of using group Compassion focused therapy (CFT) with people recovering from psychosis.
Compassion focused therapy change processes (semi-structured Recovery Narrative Interview designed to stimulate a narrative around), The Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale (CGI-I), the Narrative
Recovery Style Scale (NRSS), The Beck Depression Inventory-II, e Fear of Recurrence Scale (FORSE), Personal Beliefs about Illness Questionnaire-Revised (PBIQ-R)
Treatment as usual (TAU), and Group compassion focused therapy (CFT): patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder were randomized
to CFT plus treatment as usual (TAU; n = 22) or to TAU alone (n = 18). Group CFT
comprised 16 sessions (2 hr each, 1 x week)
(N = 40) adult patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder. Mean age was 43.2 years old for the CFT group and 40.0 for the TAU
Group CFT was associated with no adverse events, low attrition (18%), and high acceptability. Relative to TAU, CFT was associated with greater observed clinical improvement (p < 0.001) and significant increases in compassion (p = 0.015) of large magnitude. Relative to TAU, increases in compassion in the CFT group were significantly associated with reductions in depression (p = 0.001) and in perceived social marginalization (p = 0.002).
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Cross-sectional survey (focus group, part of a larger, naturalistic research
Examination of whether high levels of self-compassion are
associated with lower levels of depression, anxiety and
alcohol use at entry to treatment.
The baseline questionnaire consisted of a range of
demographic information including gender, education, income,
date of birth and involvement in drug and alcohol
rehabilitation services. Also, the Depression, Anxiety
and Stress Scale (DASS-21),
the Opiate Treatment Index (OTI1) and the
Self-compassion scale and the alcohol scale of the OTI.
(N = 77, 42 male and 35 female), aged from 19 to 69 years, with
a primary presentation of alcohol dependence based on a
DSM-IV diagnosis. Participants were both new and existing clients
of the Central Coast Drug and Alcohol Counselling Service in Australia.
At baseline, study participants were
significantly higher in depression, anxiety, stress, alcohol
use, and lower in self-compassion than the general population.
At 15 weeks follow-up, participants reported a significant
increase in self-compassion, mindfulness, common humanity
and self-kindness and significant decreases in self-judgement,
isolation and over-identification.
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Five concepts in patients with persecutory delusions: 1) self-compassion,
2) schema, 3) self-stigma, 4) fears of madness
and 5) self-esteem in association with suicidal ideation.
Psychotic Symptom Rating Scale – Delusions (PSYRATS), The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scales (PANSS),
Persecution and Deservedness Scale (PaDS), The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), The Brief Core Schema Scale (BCSS), Self-Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (SSMIS), Mental Health Worries Questionnaire (MHWC), Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES),
Social Comparison Scale (SCS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSS)
Participants over 18 years old, English being their mother language, with an experience of a current persecutory
delusion as defined by Freeman and Garety (2000); a clinical diagnosis
of non-affective psychosis (n = 21)
and the Control group, same but without any reported mental health problem (n = 21)
persecutory delusion group had many more negative self-cognitions
and fewer positive self-cognitions.
Suicidal ideation was highly associated
with low self-compassion, low self-esteem, negative self-schema,
and negative self-comparisons to others.
Fears of madness
and depression were also significantly related to suicidal ideation.
with persecutory delusions experience severe feelings of
being inferior to others, worry that they are mad, and have lower
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To compare the effectiveness of self-compassion with
a waiting condition, reappraisal, and acceptance in a clinically depressed sample, and to test the hypothesis
that the intensity of depressed mood would moderate the differential efficacy of these strategies.
The Structured Clinical Interview for
DSMeIV Axis I and II Disorders (SCID; German version). Experimental session. After the experiment, subjects completed a short post-survey.
N = 48 clinically depressed participants.
Inclusion criteria were a current clinical diagnosis of MDD,
age 18 and above, and proficiency in the German language. The
majority of participants were female (62.5%). The average age of the
participants was 35.7 years.
The reduction of depressed mood was significantly
greater in the self-compassion condition than in the waiting condition. No significant differences were
observed between the self-compassion and the reappraisal condition, and between the self-compassion
and the acceptance condition in patients’ mood ratings.
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Randomized control trial
whether the efficacy of explicit cognitive reappraisal in major depressive disorder can be enhanced
through the use of self-compassion and emotion-focused acceptance as preparatory strategies.
The experiment consisted of four negative
mood induction phases and four respective ER phases. Negative mood was
induced with low-mood inducing music (extract from “Adagio in G
minor” by Tomaso Giovanni Albinoni) which was played in the
background and a modified Velten mood induction procedure. ER strategies were introduced by the presentation of the
following sentence on the computer screen: Through the speaker
you will be taught a strategy to regulate your mood Explicit reappraisal, Self-compassion, Emotion-focused acceptance, Waiting condition. Assessment Diagnoses were derived using the Structured Clinical Interview
for DSM-IV Axis I and II Disorders.
N = 54 (64.8% female; age M = 35.59 individuals who met criteria for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), fluent in German
Participants who had utilized self-compassion as a preparatory strategy experienced
a significantly greater reduction of depressed mood during reappraisal than did those who had been
instructed to wait prior to reappraisal. Participants who had used acceptance as a preparatory strategy
did not experience a significantly greater reduction of depressed mood during subsequent reappraisal
than those in the waiting condition.
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To investigate if low self-compassion is linked to psychopathology and in particular in patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD).
Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale (ASRM), Major Depression Inventory (MDI), Work and Social
Adjustment Scale (WSAS), Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (ISMI-10) and
further reported their illness history on a survey sheet.
Bipolar disorder patients (ICD-10) (n = 30) (mean age was 30.9 years) and a non-clinical group with same age (mean age was 30.8 years)/sex/gender (each group contained 9 males and 21 females) (n = 30). All were recruited from the Mood Disorders
Clinic at Aarhus University Hospital in Denmark.
Patients with bipolar disorder had significantly lower self-compassion than controls. Self-compassion correlated positively and significantly with life-satisfaction but no significant correlations with functional impairment, internalized stigma or frequency of past affective episodes were found.
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Exploratory, correlational study
To explore the relationship between self-compassion,
symptoms and insight in individuals with schizophrenia.
Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS),
Scale to Assess Unawareness of Illness (Abbreviated)
(SUMD), Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS), The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS)
76 men and 12 women with an SCID
confirmed diagnosis schizophrenia (n = 51)
or schizoaffective disorder (n = 37) (N = 88). The mean (SD) age of the participants was 49.61 years and there were
from a Midwestern Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center or community
mental health center.
Higher self-compassion scores were
associated with lower scores on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale
positive, excitement and emotional discomfort symptom scales in addition
to poorer insight.
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Randomized Pilot Study (intervention)
To investigate the effects of a short training programme in loving-kindness and compassion meditation (LKM/CM) in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD).
Patients were allocated to LKM/CM or mindfulness continuation training (control group). Interventions:
Both interventions were group-based. The 3-week LKM/CM intervention included psychoeducational
content from Gilbert’s theoretical model of compassion
and Neff & Germer vision.
Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines Revised, Borderline Symptom List-23 (BSL-23), Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), Forms of Self-Criticism/Self-Attacking and Self Reassuring
Scale (FSCRS), Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale (PHLMS)
Thirty-two patients with a diagnosis of BPD according to
DSM-IV-TR criteria. Participants ranged in age from 18 to 45 years, and
included both male (n = 2) and female (n = 30) Caucasians.
Three weeks of loving-kindness and compassion meditations increased acceptance of the present moment
experience in patients with BPD. Significant improvements in the severity of borderline symptoms, self-criticism, mindfulness, acceptance
and self-kindness were observed after the LKM/CM intervention.
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Exploratory, correlational study
Explores the relationship between fears of compassion and happiness in general, with capacities for emotional processing (alexithymia), capacities for mindfulness, and empathic abilities. To advance this research, a new scale was developed to measure general fears of positive feelings—the Fear of Happiness Scale.
Fears of Compassion Scales, The Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), The Five Facets of Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), Davis Interpersonal Reactivity Index, Types of Positive Affect Scale, Forms of Self-Criticism and Self-Reassurance Scale, The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42), Fear of Happiness Scale.
Students from the University of Derby participated in the study (N = 185). Participants were 153 women and 32 men with an age range of 18 - 57 years (M = 27.97)
Fears of compassion for self, from others and in particular fear of happiness, were highly linked to different aspects of alexithymia, mindfulness, empathy, self-criticism and depression, anxiety and stress.
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Pilot study (experimental correlational)
associations between compassion and clinical symptoms in a group of individuals with psychosis and the
further development of a narrative-based measure of compassion.
Narrative Compassion Interview (NCI),
Narrative Compassion Scale (NCS),
(N = 29) Participants were under the care of NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde (NHS GG&C) mental health
services and met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
of Mental Disorders—4th Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for an affective or non-affective psychotic
disorder with a diagnosis of psychotic disorder.
Average age was
40.6 years old, predominantly male (n = 25, 86.2%), white Scottish (n = 27, 93.1%) and single (n = 20, 69.0%)
Greater narrative compassion was associated with less negative symptoms, less
cognitive disorganisation and less excitement. No correlations were found between narrative
compassion and the Self-Compassion Scale.
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Randomised control trial
The within-person relationship of self-compassion com ponents (self-kindness,
common humanity, mindfulness, self-judgment, isolation, over-identification)
and subsequent PTSD symptoms over the course of therapy.
PTSD Symptom Scale-Self-Report (PSS-SR), the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) (translated to Norwegian),
the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview
(MINI), e Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV AxisII
Personality Disorders (SCID-II), Imaginal exposure, The Treatment Integrity Checklist
Referrals (N = 65) to a PTSD treatment
program at a National clinic. The mean age of 65 ITT patients—38 women and 27 men—was 45.2 years.
The self-compassion components self-kindness, self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification had a within-person effect on subsequent PTSD symptoms, independently of therapy form. The within-person relationship between self-judgment and subsequent PTSD symptoms was stronger in patients with higher initial self-judgment. Few indications that within-person variations in PTSD symptoms predict subsequent self-compassion components.
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Whether GAD (Generalised Anxiety Disorder) patients would report lower mindfulness and self-compassion levels than healthy stressed individuals, In order to advance treatment approaches.
Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID), Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), State Trait Anxiety Inventory Trait (STAI). Measures for GAD Individuals Only: Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and Beck Anxiety Scale (BAI).
Measures for Healthy Controls Experiencing Stress Only: Perceived Stress Scale (PSS).
Individuals with current GAD as defined by the DSM-IV-TR criteria and healthy controls with high ratings of subjective stress were recruited to the Massachusetts General Hospital Department of Psychiatry to participate in a stress reduction course. GAD patients (n = 87) (51.22% females; mean age 39.4 years) and 49 healthy controls (n = 49) (65.31% females; mean age 38.7)
GAD patients had lower mindfulness and self-compassion than healthy stressed controls, and both were negatively correlated with levels of anxiety, worry, and anxiety sensitivity. Mindfulness was a better predictor of disability than actual anxiety symptom scores.
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Construction of a hypothesized model that models
relationships between self-criticism, depression and the
proposed mediators (relationships between
self-criticism and depression, and the mediating roles of fear of
compassion, self-compassion, and the perception that one is important
to others as a dimension of mattering.)
The Levels of Self-Criticism Scale (LOSC),
The Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS),
The 26-item Self-Compassion Scale (SCS)
Importance Scale of the Mattering Index,
The Fear of Compassion Instrument (FOCS)
N = 260 university students at a large public Midwestern
university in the United States recruited through student e-mail lists, psychology classes,
and flyers on campus.38 (18.4%) were
men and 168 (81.6%) were women, with ages ranging from 17 to
52 years (Mean age: 21.42 years)
Self-Criticism/Compassion Mediation Model, the fear of self-compassion, and the perception that one is
important to others serially mediated the relationship between comparative self-criticism and depression.
Additionally, self-compassion partially mediated both the relationship between internalized self-criticism
and depression, and the relationship between comparative self-criticism and depression.
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Whether (lack of) self-compassion is a cause or
a consequence of depressive symptoms, or both.
Self-Compassion Scale (SCS)
Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the German
Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I;
N = 125 depressed outpatients after a time
limited cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy (54% female)
Lack of self-compassion predicts depression,
whereas depression does not predict self-compassion. This was also the case for the relationship
between self-compassion and the presence of a major depressive episode. The same patterns
also occurred when the reciprocal effects for two composite sub-measures of either
positive or negative facets of self-compassion were separately tested.
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(Standarization case study)
To establish reliability and normative
values on the SCS-SF for individuals who are receiving mental health services
at college counseling centers in hope of increasing the utility of the scale within
this setting. Understanding of self-compassion in clinical settings.
The Standardized Data Set (SDS), Self-Compassion Scale-Short Form (SCS-SF)
Participants were college or university counseling center clients who contributed
data to the Center for Collegiate Mental Health (CCMH). Students were receiving individual counseling
from one of 10 university counseling centers located in six different states. A
total of N = 1609 clients participated in the study. Of the students who identified
their gender, 1035 were women (69%), 461 (30.7%) were men, and four
(0.3%) identified as other.
Τhe SCS-SF proved to be
reliable for use with a clinical college population, evidencing strong internal
When comparing norms of the clinical student population in this study
with general student populations, it appears that students seeking counseling tend
to have lower self-compassion.
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The relation between self-compassion and PTSD
symptoms using DSM IV and DSM 5 criteria.
Life Events Checklist-5 (LEC-5), PTSD Checklist for DSM IV (PCL-C), PTSD Checklist-5 (PCL-5),
Short Form of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS-SF)
In Sample 1, participants (N 1/4 74) were recruited from the community through newspaper,
online advertisement, local clinics, and the university in which the research was conducted.
Students who completed the study were eligible to receive financial compensation as opposed
to course credit. The sample was predominately female (n = 53; men = 21) with a
mean age of M = 23.36. In Sample 2, participants were recruited through an online crowdsourcing platform
(Amazon’s Mechanical Turk). Approximately half women (n = 75) and men (n = 77) mean age of M = 35.02
Self-compassion was negatively correlated with aggregated PTSD symptoms for DSM IV and DSM
5. Self-compassion was correlated with avoidance symptoms for DSM IV but was correlated with all
symptom clusters for the DSM 5.
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Tested the hypothesis that the association between social support and post-traumatic stress
disorder (PTSD), generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), and depression symptoms had an indirect pathway via self-compassion.
Life Events Checklist-5 (LEC-5), PTSD Checklist-5 (PCL-5), Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), Short Form of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS-SF), The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS)
Participants (N = 599) were recruited through an online crowdsourcing
platform (Amazon’s Mechanical Turk) and were required to have experienced a Criterion A traumatic
event to be included in the study.
was positively related to self-compassion. Self-compassion was negatively related to PTSD, GAD, and depression
symptoms. Self-compassion mediated the relation between social support and PTSD, GAD, and depression symptoms.
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To see if survivors of childhood sexual abuse exhibit fear of self-compassion and whether it relates to psychological functioning. The present model examined pathways from childhood physical and sexual abuse to symptoms of PTSD and depression through self-compassion and fear of self-compassion.
Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire (TLEQ), Post traumatic stress disorder screening and diagnostic scale (PSDS), Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (Dass-21), Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), Fear of Self-compassion scales-Self-compassion (FCS-SC)
A college sample (N = 377). Inclusion criteria was fluency in English and age > 18. Mean age was 19.12 years old.
Significant indirect effect of childhood sexual abuse on symptoms of depression and PTSD via fear of self-compassion but not self-compassion.
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To test if social anxiety is associated with
parental criticism and examine the
possibility that different aspects of self-compassion (self-warmth and self-coldness)
mediate the relationship between parental criticism and social anxiety.
Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS), The Self-Compassion Scale, The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS)
The sample consisted of
n = 140 females and n = 71 males ranging from 18 to 63 years of age (M = 30.23). They were recruited from the general population and were offered an
entry into a lucky draw prize as incentive for participating.
Both self-warmth and self-coldness
components of self-compassion mediated
the relationship between parental criticism and
social anxiety. Individuals who reported being
frequently criticized by parents were more likely to
have low self-compassion, which in turn was
associated with higher social anxiety.
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Study 1: a pilot trial of mindfulness-based
Study 2: a longitudinal study
To examine whether higher levels of self-compassion were
associated with better parenting and fewer emotional and behavioral
problems in children of parents with a history of
The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, The Beck Depression
Inventory Second Edition (BDI-II), Parents’ Sensitive Responding Interactions were video-recorded and were coded later using
the Coding of Attachment-Related Parenting (CARP, Parents’ Attributions of Their Children’s Behavior using a measure of parental attributions, developed
by Dadds, Scott, and Woolgar at the National Academy of
Parenting Research (NAPR, UK)
Study 1: 38 parents with recurrent depression. (36 mothers and 2 fathers, mean age = 36.2 years)
160 families, including 50 mothers and 40 fathers who had a
history of depression.
Parents reporting higher levels of
self-compassion were more likely to attribute the cause of
their children’s behavior to external factors, were less critical,
and used fewer distressed reactions to cope with their children’s
Greater self-compassion was associated with lower levels of mothers’ child-directed criticism and fathers’ distressed reac- tions.
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To examine factors that may attenuate
the negative impact that shame and rumination
may have on hypersexuality.
Hypersexual Behavior Inventory (HBI), Shame Inventory (SI), Self-Rumination Scale (SRS), Self-Compassion Scale–Short Form (SCS)
N = 172 men who were
recruited during a DSM-5 field trial investigating
the proposed diagnosis of hypersexual disorder. The participants were consecutively
selected at outpatient clinics based on 1) a primary
complaint of hypersexual behavior reported during
intake and 2) willingness to participate in and consent
to the research protocol. All patients in this
study met the DSM-5 proposed diagnostic criteria for
Self-compassion partially mediated
the relationship between shame and rumination
and hypersexual behavior.
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To explore the interconnection among self-compassion, resilience, emotion dysregulation,
and PTSD symptom severity in a sample of treatment-seeking women with
Symptoms of PTSD were assessed using the CAPS, a semistructured clinical interview
drawn from the symptoms described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV),
Self-Compassion Scale-Short Form (SCS-SF), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC).
N = 176 participants from a larger ongoing multisite clinical
trial, which recruited women ages 18 to 65 (mean age of 41.18), in four large public hospitals in urban
settings. Participants were female survivors
of interpersonal violence (physical or sexual violence) with a primary diagnosis
Self-compassion was negatively related to PTSD symptom severity and to
emotion dysregulation, and positively related to resilience. In addition, emotion
dysregulation mediated the relationship between PTSD symptom severity
and self-compassion and also influenced the relationship between
resilience and self-compassion.
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To examine if self-compassion functions as a resilience mechanism and adaptive emotion
regulation strategy that protects against psychopathology
for those with high levels of positive mental health.
The Mental Health Continuum—Short Form (MHC-SF), The Self-Compassion Scale—Short Form (SCS-SF), The Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS), The modified Differential Emotions Scale (mDES)
Sample consisted of N = 349 participants who filled
out an online survey. This was a convenience sample.
Of the 349 participants, 64.5% was female. Mean age of
the participants was 32.88.
significantly mediated the negative relationship between
positive mental health and psychopathology. Higher levels of self-compassion attenuated the relationship
between state negative affect and psychopathology.
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Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis Study
(exploratory, qualitative analysis)
To increase understanding of the internal processes of recovery in psychosis, with particular
consideration given to self-compassion and self-criticism.
To explore the internal process of recovery from the
Mental health professionals
from a community mental health team in the United Kingdom identified potential participants (N = 10), between 25 and 52 years (mean = 35.8 years)
The age of onset of psychosis ranged from 16 to 43 years (mean = 22.8 years).
Working diagnoses (noted from existing medical records) included paranoid schizophrenia,
schizotypal disorder, and schizophrenia with secondary depression.
Self-criticism maintained distressing experiences
of psychosis and compassionate self-acceptance resulted in empowered action and promoted
recovery and growth. The dual process of acceptance and change in relationship to self was central to
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To examine self-compassion and its correlates in a treatment-seeking sample of persons with social anxiety disorder (SAD).
The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS), The Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (BFNE), The Fear of Positive Evaluation Scale (FPES), Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II), Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T)
N = 72 (33 men, 39 women) with generalised SAD (mean age 33.8)
People with SAD reported less self-compassion, but it wasn’t generally associated with severity of social anxiety. It was though associated with greater fear of evaluation (either positive or negative).
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To examine if people with OCD show
deficits in the specific values of self-compassion and courage, and
the extent to which they are living in accordance with their overall
values. Also, to explore the relationship between
OCD severity and one’s overall valued living as well as the personal
values of self-compassion and courage.
Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R), Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale: Self-Report (Y-BOCSSR), Courage measure (CM), Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), Valued Living Questionnaire (VLQ).
Participants were recruited via advertisements on various OCD
related websites completed a number of screening questions designed
to indicate an OCD diagnosis based on DSM-IV-R criteria. Participants (N = 115) were primarily female
(71.3%) with a mean age of 36.34).
Analyses yielded significant
relationships between OCD severity and self-compassion, courage, and the VLQ. A multiple regression
analysis revealed the VLQ and courage to be significant predictors of OCD severity.
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To test whether specific internal traits characterized by shame,
self-criticism and fear of self-compassion impact on Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), through their effect in daily
peer hassles and depression.
The Other as Shamer Scale (OAS2), The Fears of Compassion Scales, The Forms of Self-Criticism/Self-Reassuring Scale (FSCRS), The Daily Hassles Microsystem Scale (DHMS), The Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21), The risk-taking and self-harm inventory for adolescents (RTSHIA) all in Poruguese.
The sample was collected from middle and secondary schools in the district of
Coimbra, Portugal. N = 782 adolescents, 369 boys (47.2%) and 413 girls (52.8%). Age ranged between 12 and 18 years old (M = 14.89).
External shame, hated self and fear of self-compassion indirectly predict NSSI,
through their effect in daily peer hassles and depression. Strong link between hated self and NSSI.