Chitgian- Urzúa et al. (2013)

309 people from the general population between 18 and 60 years, from Chile.

309 personas de población general de entre 18 y 60 años, con nivel educativo variado, de Chile

Ryff’s PWBS, with 29 items (van Dierendonck et al., 2007, in Spanish)

Descriptive analyses. Correlation among items with the total scale score and the different factors. Internal reliability (Cronbach’s alpha). Temporal stability assessment (3 weeks interval). Confirmatory factor analyses with six first order factors, and a second order analysis with one second order factor. Goodness of fit indices were evaluated.

The correlation between the items and the total score of the scale showed values between .29 and .66. The correlation between the items and their respective dimension, were between .43 and .80. The internal reliability, using Cronbach’s alpha, was .89, and the test-retest reliability had a correlation of .80. The correlations between the dimensions and the total score of the scale had values between .61 and .82. There were high correlations between dimensions (self-acceptance and purpose inlife, for example, with value of .77). The data indicated that the first order model of six factors with a second order factor did not fit the proposed model.

The internal consistency was good, although the dimensions had lower values that differed from those of the Spanish version. The test-retest reliability showed an adequate correlation between the applications. There was no good model fit of the data to the six-factor structure, which suggests that it should be further studied, since it does not fit Ryff’s original theoretical model. It seems that the environmental mastery and self-acceptance scales, as well as the purpose in life and self-acceptance scales, are highly correlated and might be even measuring the same construct. The model may present adjustment difficulties, given the high correlations between the factors, so it is suggested to re-evaluate the model and to redefine the dimensions and include other concepts related to well-being.

García- Alandete (2013)

180 undergraduate students, aged between 18 and 55, from Spain

Ryff’s PWBS, with 29 items (van Dierendonck et al., 2007, in Spanish)

Descriptive analyses and internal reliability (Cronbach’s alpha).

Cronbach’s alpha reliabilities for each factor were: self-acceptance .80, positive relationships with others .76, autonomy .74, environmental mastery .64, personal growth .69, and purpose in life .78. The confirmatory factor analysis of the six-dimensional scale had an adequate model fit.

The internal consistencies reached values between acceptable and high, similar to those obtained by Díaz et al. (2006) .

Medina- Calvillo et al. (2013)

Study had two samples from Mexico. First sample, 477 university students. Second sample, 256 participants from the general population with different sociodemographic levels. No age information provided.

Ryff’s PWBS, reduced version (van Dierendonck adapted to Spanish by Díaz et al., 2006 ) with 39 items.

Confirmatory factorial analysis with the first sample. Internal reliability (Cronbach’s alpha), for both samples. Test-retest reliability after a period of two months in the first sample. Descriptive analyses for each sample.

The study was performed in two stages, a confirmatory factor analysis was done for each sample and the goodness of fit was acceptable for a six factor model; Cronbach’s alpha was .92 for Sample A and .90 for Sample B; the Cronbach’s alpha values for the subscales were higher in sample A and in sample B were much lower. Test-retest reliability over a two-month period was r = .80 for the total sum of the scale, while for the subscales the correlations were between .58 and .73.

Cronbach’s alpha values of the internal consistencies were acceptable for the total scale, however, those of the subscales were lower than the original ones and those of the study by Díaz et al. (2006) . It seems that the Mexican model does not fit van Dierendonck’s multifactorial theoretical model, nor Ryff’s, in contrast to what has been found in countries such as Spain, Turkey, United Kingdom, Iran and Sweden. Based on the findings, other proposals were suggested, even with different numbers of items. Finally, test-restest reliability suggests that full scale and subscales have temporal stability.