Loera-Malvaez et al. (2008)

208 high-school students, aged 14 to 18 years, from Mexico.

Ryff’s PWBS (van Dierendonck adapted to the Spanish by Díaz et al., 2006 ), with 39 items.

Exploratory factor analysis and internal reliability (Cronbach’s alpha).

Four factors were obtained that grouped 34 items (self-acceptance, interpersonal relations, autonomy and satisfaction with life), with factor loadings between .72 and .41. The internal reliabilities calculating Cronbach’s alpha values was for self-acceptance .91; for interpersonal relations .75; for autonomy .73 and for satisfaction with life .64.

This study reproduces four factors that are similar to some of the proposals of the original model, with good qualities of stability and consistency.

Tomás Miguel, Meléndez, & Navarro (2008)

169 people between 65 and 94 years old, retired, non-institutionalized and without severe cognitive impairment, from Spain.

Ryff’s PWBS, the version of 54 items used by Triadó (2003).

Confirmatory factor analyzes grouping the 54 items into 18 indicators (three indicators for each of the original six factors). Items were clustered based on what each item measures conceptually and on the exploratory factor analysis results. Descriptive information was analyzed and correlations among the factors and indicators were performed. Eight models were tested for which model fit indices were obtained (onefactor, twofactors, fivefactors, fivefactors with a second-order factor, sixfactors, six factors with two-second order factors, and six factors with one of second-order factor) according to the revised literature.

Eight models were tests, each with their goodness of fit indexes (the first model with one factor; another with two factors; one model with five factors; a five-factor model with a second order factor; a model with six factors; another six-factor model with a second-order factor; a six-factor model with two second-order factors; and a six-factor model with a second-order model) according to the revised literature. None of the models were considered to be fully adequate, although the six and five-factor models with no second-order factors has the most satisfactory model fit values, making it difficult to choose between one or the other, although the AIC and the chi-square ratio allowed to choose the one with five factors. The correlations among factors of both models were high. The omega coefficient (Ω) was obtained as the best alternative to the alpha coefficient, for both models. In the case of the six-factor model, the omega values were between Ω = .50 and Ω = .66, were the environmental mastery had the lowest omega value and for the remaining four factors the omega values were higher than .60; the five-factor model showed a reliability of Ω = .48 for autonomy, personal growth, positive relations and purpose in life, and the highest with Ω = .77 for the factors of environmental mastery and self-acceptance.

The results of the factor analyzes do not have fully satisfactory model fit indices in any of the models; however, the five- and six-factor models are similar to the results of other studies. The problem of not having a six-factor model can be explained by the overlap between factors, given the high correlations among these factors. Choosing between the five and six-factor models was difficult since the model fit indices were similar, although in the case of the five-factor model, the internal reliability increases by joining two factors and doubling the number of indicators

Van Dierendonck, Díaz, Rodríguez-Carbajal, Blanco, & Moreno- Jiménez (2008)

919 people (592 of Spain and 327 of Colombia), between 16 and 74 years.

Ryff’s PWBS, reduced version (van Dierendonck adapted to Spanish by Díaz et al., 2006 ) with 39 items.

Confirmatory factorial analyses: one factor model; two factor model with positive and negative items; three factors; three factors with a second order factor; six factors; six factors with a factor of Second order with four indicators; six factors with a second order factor. Goodness of fit index and internal reliability (Cronbach’s alpha).

The results indicate that the model with the best fit is the six-dimensional model and its Cronbach alpha internal reliability indices were between .68 and .82.

The Spanish version confirms van Dierendonck’s findings of the six-factor model, with adequate factor validity and reliability. An item was removed from the personal growth dimension because it did not have an adequate factor loading. Thus, the hexadimensional structure is confirmed against the three-dimensional structure proposed by Springer and Hauser in 2006 .