Version of the






Díaz et al. (2006)

467 people with ages between 18 and 72 years, with diverse educational level and varied sociodemographic conditions, of Spain.

Ryff’s PWBS (1989), of the version proposed by van Dierendonck (2004), that was translated and back-translated to Spanish by experts, in its 39-item version.

Internal reliability (Cronbach’s alpha). Confirmatory factor analysis with six different theoretical models (one-factor, two-factor, five-factor, six-factor, five-factor with second-order factor and six-factor with second-order factor).

All of the scales, except for personal growth (α = .68), showed good internal consistencies between .71 and .83; The version proposed by van Dierendonck does not meet the model fit criteria. Therefore, a new version was developed from which items were chosen with inter-item correlations of .30 or higher and with factor loadings in the remaining dimensions with at least .40 of the factor analysis. Ten items were eliminated, leaving 29 items, which presented good model fit indicators in a six-factor model, with a second order, with alpha values between .70 and .84.

The analyzis carried out on the original version of van Dierendonck have a general good consistency, but the different model fit values of the models were not satisfactory. As the length of the scale increases, the scale has better model fit values. The differences between the good fit in the van Dierendonck version and the poor fit in the Spanish version may be due to the different characteristics of the samples. The new version, which eliminated 10 items and was composed of 29 items, had a good fit in the theoretical model with six factors and a second order factor and represents the theoretical elements of each of the dimensions well.

Molina Sena & Meléndez Moral (2006)

111 people from the Dominican Republic with ages from 65 to over 80 years

Ryff’s PWBS of 84 items, from the version of Ryff (1989)

Factor analysis. Internal reliability (Cronbach’s alpha). Correlations amongs scales and descriptive information.

The exploratory factorial analysis revealed a five-dimensional structure, with 43 items, with Cronbach’s alpha values for environmental mastery of .87, self-acceptance of .78, positive relations with others of .80, autonomy of .69, and personal growth of .61. The correlations between the total score of the scale with the factors were between −.10 and .34.

The five-factor structure seems consistent with the results obtained in other studies, having the items of the purpose in life dimension distributed in the other factors. The internal reliability indices of the scales were adequate. There are significant correlations between the total score of the scale and each of the five factors.

Triadó et al. (2007)

422 adults over 65 years of age, retired, with diverse sociodemographic variables, from Spain.

Ryff’s PWBS (1989), with 54 items, translated and back-translated from the original English version to Spanish.

Correlations between the total score of the scale and its factors. Correlations between the scales with age, education level and income. Principal components analysis with second order factors for the PWBS and two other measures (Life Satisfaction Index and Philadelphia Geriatric Scale) in two factors (hedonic and eudaimonic). A factor analysis was made with six factors and then a confirmatory analysis testing indices of goodness of fit in which five different models were tested according to the theory.

The correlations between scales were between .08 and .55; the highest correlations were between personal growth and purpose in life (eudemonic well-being) and between self-acceptance and environmental mastery (hedonic well-being). Statistically significant correlations were found between purpose in life and age, between personal growth educational level, purpose in life and educational level, personal growth and income, and purpose in life and income. The factorial analysis of the Ryff Scales with Life Satisfaction and the Geriatric Scale are grouped into two factors related to the eudemonic well-being and the hedonic well-being. The factorial analysis forced to 6 factors does not reproduce the original model so we tested five models where the model of 6 factors with a second order factor was the model that had the best fit.

The internal consistency is relatively low and does not coincide with what was obtained in previous studies, which indicates on the one hand that longer versions reduce their internal consistency. The strong relationships between personal growth and purpose in life, as well as environmental mastery and self-acceptance (greater than .50) assume that the same underlying constructs are being measured, associations that point to a measure of eudemonic and hedonic well-being respectively, two aspects of the construct of well-being. On the other hand, exploratory and confirmatory analyzes do not replicate the original structure, but the best fit is that of 6 factors with two second order factors, although clearly poor and unsatisfactory, similar to findings with younger samples.