Case study area


Sampling area (sub-districts)

No. of respondents

Land subsidence rate

Land subsidence triggers

Land subsidence impacts

Jakarta (urban and coastal area)

One of the world’s megacities

Population density: 15,052 people/km2

Annual population growth: 1.11%

Cengkareng, Penjaringan, Tanjung Priok


1 - 15 cm/year; in some areas 25 - 28 cm/year [3]

Groundwater extraction, construction load, natural consolidation [3]

Cracking of permanent infrastructure, expansion of inundated areas, increasing inland seawater intrusion [3]

Semarang City (coastal area)

Located on an alluvial plain

Population density: 4373 people/km2

Annual population growth: 1.71%

Genuk, Semarang Utara, Tanjung Mas, Tugu


8 - 13.5 cm/year [7] [40]

Groundwater extraction, alluvium soil consolidation, construction load [2]

Damage to urban infrastructures, coastal inundation [2]

Indragiri Hilir (peatland area)

Intensive expansion of oil and coconut palms

Population density: 60 people/km2

Annual population growth: 1.92%

Enok, Tembilahan, Tembilahan Hulu, Batang Tuaka, Tempuling


4 - 6 cm/year [20]

Intensive agricultural activities―mainly oil and coconut palm [23]

Damage to houses, infrastructures and plantation areas [20]