Strategies and solutions


The use of software and new technology

HOMER [16] : used by planners and decision makers to evaluate the design issue [52] and the techno-economic viability of renewable energy systems

GIS: used to locate the consumers, to know if their area is electrified or not [42] and to identify the zone with higher solar resources [13]

The use of remote-sensing data: the night-time lights to evaluate the level of electrification [54] , the global solar radiation data from the NASA for deploying PV [13]

The use of decentralized systems

Small diesel power generations, biomass, small wind and small hydropower systems, PV systems [49] , CSP [6]

PV-Hybrid systems: PV-diesel generator system, PV-ESS system, PV-hydropower system [13]

The use of micro-grids and off-grid systems

A kind of decentralized system that uses renewable energies and low carbon-resources [15]

Study of energy market in SSA

Study about how to reduce the cost of renewable energy such as PV and how to enhance the distribution of renewable energy [10]

The establishment of a democratic institution and support schemes by the government

A series of study proposed by P. A. Trotter [5] shows that democracy works well with the provision of public services such as rural electrification.

Moreover, Schillebeeckx et al. [41] highlighted that the success of an electrification project depends largely on significant government support and strong political will [75] .

Cooperation with major economic powers and international donors

The case of a fee-for-service model chosen by European Union to facilitate access for the poorest households to the energy technology [14] .

Power Africa who aims to increase the installed capacity by 30,000 MW by 2030 [4] .