Logical reasoning: Critical thinkers are concerned with the ability to evidence claims in a valid and sound manner

・ An ability and willingness to think logically; to defend and form perspectives without contradiction, a willingness to accept or reject ideas based on evidence

・ An ability and willingness to identify, challenge and analyse assumptions for validity, an ability to independently examine knowledge and opinions to solve problems

Reflection and open-mindedness: Critical thinkers reflect metacognitively, purposefully and open-mindedly

・ An ability and willingness to reflect meaningfully; to think about one’s own thinking metacognitively; to engage in purposeful and honest self-reflection in a manner that requires logic, a propensity to engage in an activity with reflective scepticism

・ An ability and willingness to suspend judgment

・ A willingness to be open-minded so that perspectives can shift in light of new evidence

・ An ability and willingness to be self-regulative; to have no bias toward one’s own perspectives ipso facto, to engage in a purposeful analysis of one’s own judgments

An awareness of the power relationships that influence thinking: Critical thinkers strive toward an increasingly conscious appreciation of the constructed nature of our thinking and influences of power structures

・ An ability and willingness to appreciate, understand and examine the complex interplay of experiences and power relationships that influence our perceptions and thinking; to appreciate the constructed nature of our all our thinking

Striving toward the common good: Critical thinkers are inspired by a willingness to seek the truth for productive ends

・ An ability and willingness to accept that all ideas demand scrutiny; a willingness to continually critique ideas in appreciation of the need to seek truth and strive to achieve productive ends, which inevitably develops resilience, inquisitiveness and an innovative drive toward the common good