Quantities and values

Saved driver costs for long-distance

15% of long-distance transport by AV in 2025 is driver-free, 50% in 2050

Saved driver costs for other transport by truck

10% of distribution and 20% of construction vehicles that are AVs are driver-free in 2025, 50% in 2040.

Saved fuel and environmental costs due to convoy driving

convoy = 10% of long-distance in 2025, 50% in 2040; 10% saved fuel

Increased traffic safety

10% fewer accidents in 2025 and 30% in 2040 compared with today

Net benefit new traffic and added post for difference between price and MC

Price elasticity of demand for long-distance is −0.8, other transport −0.5; price 20% over marginal cost

Adjustment post: transferred traffic from train

5% of new long-distance transport transferred from train