Why should I do this (in this way)?


Personal Authority

* because I say so * because so-and-so says so

Expert Authority

* because experts say so * because Professor X says so

Role Model Authority

* because experienced people say so

* because wise people say so

Impersonal Authority

* because the law says so * because the guidelines say so

The Authority of Tradition

* because this is what we have always done

* because this is what we always do

The Authority of Conformity

* because that’s what everybody else does

* because that’s what most people do

Moral Evaluation


* because it is right * because it is natural * because it is perfectly normal


* because it has X (moralized) desirable quality


* because it is like another activity which is associated with positive values


Instrumental Rationalization

* because it is a (moralized) means to an end

Theoretical Rationalization

* because it is the way things are

* because doing things this way is appropriate to the nature of these actors


Moral Tales

* because look at the reward(s) this person achieved for doing it

Cautionary Tales

* because look at the consequences this person suffered for not doing it