With glutaraldehyde

and sulfosuccinic acid

Protonic conductivity

Membrans for Fuel cells



With di- and tri-carboxylic acids


Drug release

[142] [143]

Graft copolymerization

Copolymerization of metacrylic acid with chitosan in the presence of APS

Improved water solubility

Antibacterial activity


Graft copolymerization

Copolymerization of maleic acid with (CMCTS) and (HPCTS)

Improved scavenging ability

Antioxidant activity


Graft copolymerization

Copolymerization of aniline with chitosan

Protonic conductivity

Conductive films and fibers



Monochloroaetic acid

Solubility depends on pH

Antimicrobial activity, affinity with metal ions, Controlled release of drugs



Heating chitosan with orthophosphoric acid in DMF or with phosphorous pentoxide in methanesulphonic acid

Solubility in water under neutral conditions

Bactericidal, biocompatible, bioabsorbable, osteoinductive and metal chelating properties



Reaction of acyl chlorides with chitosan (synthesis of N,O-Acyl chitosan derivatives)

Reaction mainly occurred on the OH group and not on the NH2 group

Highly improved antifungal activity



Synthesis of N-phthaloyl chitosan. (MPEG) iodide

Soluble in water and aqueous solutions of wide pH range

Extremely low reduced viscosity


Self-rearrangement of polymer networks

chitosan/chondroitin sulfate formed by polyelectrolyte complexation

Crystallinity, higher thermal stability, porosity, and water uptake capacity

pH sensitive material which can be tailored to several specific applications

[151] [152]

BC/Ch composite preparation

Immersing wet BC pellicle in chitosan solution followed by freeze-drying

porous network structure and large aspect surface

Wound dressing or tissue-engineering scaffolds


Reversible blending

Mixing of chitosan/PHEMA

Swollen structure

Electrically sensitive behavior


Electrospun chitosan fibers


(submicron scale)

Fast and reversible electroactuation

Application in artificial muscles


Blending of chitosan and Cellulose

Preparation of chitosan/cellulose blend beads

Blend beads with rough and folded surface morphology

Odor treatment and metal ions adsorption


Casting of a TFA solution of chitosan and cellulose

Large bending displacement under low voltage

Blended dry and durable actuator


Blending of chitosan with PCL

Chitosan and PCL homogeneously dissolved in acetic acid/water and processed into uniform membranes

Blends with chemical bonds

biological and anti-bacterial properties


Preparation of poly(AA-co AM)/(O-CMC) interpenetrating polymer network

Synthesis of a semi-IPN by AA and AM copolymerization of in the presence of O-CMCthen

synthesis of a full-IPN through cross-linking

Superporous hydrogel

Mucosal drug delivery system, especially for peroral delivery of peptide and protein drugs