Product innovation

Strong potential for application in end-use products such as electric vehicles, photovoltaic systems, energy-saving electric appliances and batteries

Process innovation

Concerns mainly energy-intensive industries, such as iron and steel manufacturing. Since energy saving in these industries has been promoted since the first oil crisis in 1973, the residual potential for process innovation in Japan is small.

Market innovation

Includes a feed-in tariff for renewable energy technologies as well as emissions trading systems

Innovation in supply chains

Includes smart grid and smart community systems

Innovation in institutions and organizations

Activates new business models through new legislative regulation or deregulation, such as the top-runner standards