Year of publication

Type of study

Location (city)

Population studied

Exposure variables

Key Health


Key findings

Bayer- Oglesby [25]


Cohort study



Ÿ Distance (distance to closest main street (per 100 m); living within 20 m of a main street)

Ÿ Pollutant measured

­ PM10


­ Attack of breathlessness

­ Wheezing

­ Regular cough

­ Regular phlegm

Ÿ The risk of attacks of breathlessness increased for all subjects by 13% per 500-m increment in the length of main street segments within 200 m of the home and decreased in never smokers by 12% per 100 m increment in distance from home to a main street

Ÿ Living within 20 m of a main street increased the risk of regular phlegm by 15% and wheezing with breathing problems by 34% in never smokers

Ÿ These findings among a general population provide strong confirmation that living near busy streets leads to adverse respiratory health effects


et al. [26]


Case control/ Cross sectional

UK (Nottingham)

Children (4 to 11 years) and adolescents (11 to 16 years)

Ÿ Distance to nearest main road (≤30 m; 60 m; 90 m; 120 m; 150 m)


­ Wheezing


­ Asthma

Ÿ Among children living within 150 m of a main road, the risk of wheeze increased. And most of the increased risk was localized to within 90 m of the roadside.

Ÿ Living within approximately 90 m of a main road is associated with a proximity-related increase in the risk of wheezing illness in children

Hu et al. [27]


Cohort study

China (Beijing)

Adults (>35 years) long-term residents

(≥3 years)

Ÿ Distance (<100 m; 100 - 200 m, or >200 m)


­ Chronic cough

­ Shortness of breath

Ÿ Participants living a shorter distance from major roads had lower percentage of predicted FEV in 1 s.

Ÿ Long term exposure to traffic related air pollution in people living near major roads in Beijing is associated with lower lung function, airway acidification, and a higher prevalence of chronic cough