Sample size




p < 0.001

p < 0.05

In adolescent males exposed to SHS, increased levels of serum cotinine were associated with increased deterioration of cIMT and intimal smoothness.

p < 0.001

Increased levels of serum cotinine were associated with decreased vascular endothelial function.


Past and current exposure to SHS is associated with increased cIMT



p < 0.001

Adults have a significantly decreased serum antioxidant level after exposure to SHS of 30 minutes.



Children exposed to SHS had lower response to oxidant stress.



p < 0.01

Infants exposed to SHS had significantly decreased levels of serum antioxidants (albumin, thiol, uric acid, bilirubin), and significantly increased oxidative metabolism byproducts.


Increased SHS exposure at home was associated with increased risk of acute ischemic cerebrovascular events in children.