14. Srivastava et al. 2015 [55]


Measuring the medication adherence using validated tools and investigating the patient, disease, medication and health care system related factors affecting adherence to antihypertensive therapy.

N = 440

Multistage sampling method to select eligible hypertensive patient from the community


Cross sectional


Older people was found to be significantly and independently associated with better adherence. Patients on mono therapy were less adherent compared to those on two or three drugs. Patients who were aware of the association between certain risk factors for hypertension had better adherence.

15. Srikanth et al. 2015 [53]


To provide screening for hypertension to all the elderly and assess their compliance to


N = 304

All elderly individuals > 60 years residing in an urban slum.




Pearson’s Chi square test showed significant association (p < 0.005) between compliance to medication and number of drugs consumed. With increase in number of drugs to be consumed, the adherence to medication decreased (p = 0.039)

16. Venkatachalam et al. 2015 [75]


To study the factors determining adherence to antihypertensive medication

N = 473

All eligible hypertensive individual willing to participate from a community.




The participants exhibited poor adherence with lifestyle factors like unrestricted meal habits (OR = 4.8), alcohol consumption (OR = 3.1), smoking (OR = 12.9), and salt intake > 5 gm (OR = 3.6). Adherence was significantly higher among respondents taking only one medication and once daily compared with individuals taking four types of medication and as frequent as three or more times a day.

17. Kumar et al. 2014 [76]


To assess the level of adherence and the factors influencing adherence among hypertensive patients

N = 120

All eligible consenting hypertensive patients attending medicine outpatient department and peripheral outreach clinic of a medical college




Factors significantly associated with good adherence: absence of side-effects (OR = 0.1; 95% CI: 0.03 - 0.52; p = 0.003) availability of free medication (OR = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2 - 0.9; p = 0.030) and regular checkup of BP (OR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.2 - 0.9; p = 0.034)