Variable | Indicator name | Indicator definition |

Dependent variable | Productive service industry agglomeration level (S) | Location entropy of productive service industry in each city. |

Independent variable | Human capital (H) | The ratio of the number of university students in higher education institutions in cities and the number of students in 16 cities in the Yangtze River Delta. |

Independent variable | City size (CS) | The ratio of population of each city in the Yangtze River Delta and the total number of urban population. |

Independent variable | Manufacturing level (I) | The ratio of industrial production value of each city to the total industrial production value of 16 cities in the Yangtze River Delta. |

Independent variable | Degree of openness (O) | The ratio of the actual amount of foreign investment in each city to the amount of foreign investment in 16 cities. |