category | feature | recognition effect | |||

different quantization matrix | block alignment | quantified DCT coefficients | the absolute difference values of the DC-AC coefficient and the AC-AC coefficient were calculated respectively [17] | general | |

difference in histogram of quantization coefficient of DCT [15] [16] | good | ||||

difference in DCT coefficients before and after compression [9] | good | ||||

first significant digit [7] [17] [18] | the first significant number of DCT coefficient [14] | general | |||

DCT coefficient low-frequency point first significant digit [17] | good | ||||

first significant digit of DCT coefficient based on Markov model [18] | excellent | ||||

block is not aligned | difference in adjacent coefficients [19] | good | |||

percentage of JPEG coefficient [20] | good | ||||

quantization noise [42] | excellent | ||||

identical quantization matrix | disturbance threshold [21] | general | |||

truncation error and rounding error [22] | good | ||||

convergence of block property [23] (only for jpeg-100) | good | ||||