Confucian values

Western value

1. Respect for the authority of lecturer

2. Lecturer should not be questioned

3. Student motivated by family and pressure to excel

4. Positive value placed on effacement and reticence

5. Emphasis on group orientation to learning

1. Lecturer valued as a guide and facilitator

2. Lecturer is open to challenge

3. Student motivated by desire for individual development

4. Positive value placed on self-expression

5. Emphasis on individual development and creativity in learning