Summary of research

Carthey, et al. [66]

Proposed a 20-item checklist for assessing institutional resilience (CAIR) for healthcare organisations.

Wood, et al. [72]

Used a customized version of CAIR [66] to investigate factors most likely to facilitate safety culture and institutional resilience in airlines.

Wreathall [41]

Derived a set of factors that could be used for measuring and/or exploring RE based on previous work on leading indicators of organisational health (LIOH).

Back, et al. [74]

Introduced cognitive resilience as a behavioural ability, utilised the notion of reflection-in-action (RIA) and reflection-on-action (ROA) and a repetitions-distinctions-descriptions model [75] to assess cognitive resilience.

Akselsson, et al. [71]

Conducted a RE audit to examine “holes in safety culture” in the European Aviation industry.

Costella, et al. [54]

Proposed a new method for assessing safety management systems from an RE perspective and conducted a RE audit at a Brazilian manufacturing company.

Huber, et al. [73]

Conducted a RE audit in a chemical company using a set of dimensions suggested by Wreathall [41]

Jeffcott, et al. [67]

Introduced RE as a concept and suggested how these could be used to enhance patient safety during handover.

Øien, et al. [68]

Discussed a new method for developing early warning indicators based on RE principles suggested by Wreathall [41] .

Pillay, et al. [11]

Proposed a six-factor questionnaire based on managerial resilience [76] and LIOH [41] which could be used for assessing RE in gold mining; introduced realty gradient of safety (RGS) as a quantitative measure of RE.

Saurin and Carim Júnior [77]

Presented a framework for evaluating OHS management systems based on method previously develop by Costella, et al. [54] and audited RE in an electrical distribution company

Grecco, et al. [69]

Proposed a method for assessing safety and resilience based on the key indicators suggested by Wreathall [41]

Shirali, et al. [59]

Conducted a survey of RE using safety culture and management factors.