Origins of waste

Causes of waste


● Errors in contract documents

● Contract documents incomplete at commencement of construction


● Design changes

● Design and construction detail errors

● Unclear/unsuitable specification

● Poor coordination and communication (late information, last minute client requirements, slow drawing revision and distribution)


● Ordering errors (i.e., ordering items not in compliance with specification)

● Over allowances (i.e., difficulties to order small quantities)

● Supplier errors


● Damage during transportation

● Insufficient protection during unloading

● Inefficient methods of unloading

On-site management and planning

● Lack of on-site waste management plans

● Improper planning for required quantities

● Lack of on-site material control

● Lack of supervision

Material storage

● Inappropriate site storage space leading to damage or deterioration

● Improper storing methods

● Materials stored far away from point of application

Material handling

● Materials supplied in loose form

● On-site transportation methods from storage to the point of application

● Inadequate material handling

Site operation

● Accidents due to negligence

● Equipment malfunction

● Poor craftsmanship

● Time pressure


● Waste from application processes (i.e., over-preparation of mortar)

● Packaging


● Weather

● Vandalism