Expected Outcome

Behavioral Therapy

Uses the principles of operant conditioning in identifying and reducing maladaptive pain behaviors while increasing adaptive or “well” behaviors.

It reduces pain behavior and increases function.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

It uses psychoeducation to relate pain with other psychological factors like training in a variety of pain coping strategies, pleasant activity scheduling and activity pacing.

It improves over all functioning and reduces maladaptive behavior.

Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction

Mind-body treatment delivered to a group it uses meditation to teach individuals how to self-regulate their pain.

It reduces pain intensity; fatigue improves physical functioning and wellbeing.