Cfx: local skin friction coefficient

Cp: specific heat at constant pressure

f: dimensionless stream function

g: gravitational acceleration (ms−2)

Tc: low temperature at the upper wall (K)

Th: high temperature at the bottom wall (K)

T¥: temperature of the ambient fluid (K)

Gr: Grashop number

Ha: Hartmann number

Pr: Prandtl number, υ/α

q: Heat flux (Wm?2)

Ra: Rayleigh number

T: temperature of the fluid in the cavity (K)

Nu: Nusselt number

U V: Dimensionless velocity components along X, Y-direc- tion