Infectious diseases/pathogens

Features of paper-founded gadgets

Detection procedure


Paper gadget combined vertical flow sample-processing steps

Visual UV/lateral flow device

Rotavirus A

Integrated nucleic acid test on a single paper device, including extraction, amplification, and on-site detection

Naked eye

Zika virus

Wax-printed paper devices utilizing isothermal amplification


Human papillomavirus

Paper device in a foldable system allowing for fully integrated operation from sample to result

Lateral flow device

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

Paper devices fabricated with cellulose paper and flexible plastic plate


Neisseria meningitides

Versatile paper devices integrated with isothermal amplification

Visual fluorescence

Listeria monocytogenes

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)-based paper devices

Visual fluorescence

Cochlodinium polykrikoides

Paper devices based on LAMP

Visual fluorescence

Staphylococcus aureus

Self-priming paper devices

Visual fluorescence

Vibrio parahemolyticus

Self-priming paper devices

Visual fluorescence

Mycobacterium smegmatis

Paper devices combined thermal lysis and isothermal amplification into a single step

Visual fluorescence

Bacillus subtilis

A wax-printed cellulose paper device



Paper devices integrated with purification, amplification, and on-site



Escherichia coli

Foldable paper devices with the ability of long-term reagents storage


Paper devices based on isothermal amplification and on-chip detection

Visual fluorescence

Paper machine integrated sample preparation and isothermal amplification with end point detection

Visual UV/camera

Paper devices integrated extraction, purification, amplification and detection

Smartphone/naked eye

Paper devices combined thermal lysis and isothermal amplification

Visual fluorescence

Bovine infectious reproductive diseases

Multiplexed and point-of-care paper-analytical device

Visual UV/smartphone

Highly pathogenic strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV)

Paper devices fabricated with filter paper and plastic chip