Emerging DBPs

Production circumstances

Frequent concentration intervals


Produced during the disinfection of water employing chlorination, chloramination, and chlorine dioxide.

0.6 - 24 μg/L


Formed if pre-ozonation is utilized before chlorine or chloramine disinfection.

0.16 - 1.50 μg/L


The HKs levels change along the distribution system because of base-catalyzed hydrolysis reactions.

1.23 - 8.6 μg/L

Halomethanes (HMs)

Produced in the water distribution system after chloramination and ozonation without biofiltration, which hydrolyses HANs to HMs.

1.50 - 7.0 μg/L


Ozonation likely improves the production of low molecular weight oxygen-carrying by-products, conducting to the generation of halogenated aldehydes. Throughout chlorination, trihalogenated species are more probably to be produced. The generation of non-halogenated Aldehydes, which comprises acetaldehyde and formaldehyde, is provoked by integrating chlorine and other oxidants as disinfectants.



The generation of NAs is provoked by the reaction among monochloramine and organic amine precursors throughout chloramination. Further, NAs are as well formed from the chlorination of nitrite in the existence of nitrosamine precursors.

10 - 90 ng/L


Appear if water is chlorinated, chloroaminated, or ozonated in the existence of iodide.

0.54 - 0.9 μg/L


*4 μg/L