Proposed mitigation options

1. Factors related to rice harvesting, threshing and cleaning

The use of sickle and knife is dominant and result in significant qualitative loss and time.

・ Provision of small scale harvester such as reapers and mini-combine harvesters and improving capacity of smallholder to acquire them.

・ Provision of thresher/cleaners such as ASI Thresher.

・ Establishment of reward system for quality at all stage of rice production and processing

No mechanical harvesting is practice, except among small number of large scale producers

Rice cleaning is manually carried out and results in poor and inefficient cleaning operations

2. Problems related to quantity and quality of rice supplied to mills

Non homogeneity of the paddy supplied to the mills for processing results in poor quality milled rice.

・ Use of good quality seeds by farmers.

・ Adoption of quality standard in the marketing of paddy.

・ Use of rice thresher/cleaner during rice harvesting.

・ Provision of cooperative aggregation centers.

・ Establishment of reward system for quality at all stage of rice production and processing.

Poorly dried parboiled rice results in grain heating up during milling.

Contamination of paddy with stones, metals, straws, seeds of other crops and other materials.

Short supply of paddy during certain period of the year

3. Problems related to technical efficiency of rice mills

Unreliable power supply and high cost of diesel fuel to run milling machines and engines.

・ Possible development of solar powered motor to turn mills as in solar powered water pumps.

・ Provision of electric power to area where this is not available at present and provision of dedicated power line to the mill sites.

・ Capacity building for operators and provision of paddy cleaning machine at mills.

・ Sensitization of farmers on good postharvest practices especially threshing and winnowing.

Lake of and high cost of machine spare parts and frequent breakdown of rice mills and diesel engines.

Poor knowledge among rice mill operators on proper operational methods for the mills.

High level of stones and other impurities in paddy received at the mills.

4. Problems related to quality of milled rice and marketing.

High percentage of broken and partially milled rice in finished product.

・ Development of value addition technology for broken rice processing into products that command better price.

・ Develop of proper marketing channel either through cooperative or system that will benefit the farmers, processor and consumers.

・ Encourage private sector investment in packaging and branding of locally processed rice.

・ Provision of soft loans vehicles for rice processors’ group to ease movement of paddy from point of production to mills and from mills to market

Poor market channel and standard measure.

Lack of proper packaging and branding of locally milled rice.

Poor and high cost of transportation system.

5. Problems related to rice parboiling and drying

Use of poor and inefficient parboiling practices and technology

・ Dissemination and adoption of improved low cost parboiling technology

・ Enhancement of processors knowledge on good manufacturing practices (GMP) in rice processing for good quality products.

・ Demonstration of simple and adoptable technology for parboiled rice and drying that enhance quality

Lack of enhance knowledge on improved parboiling practices and quality assurance during parboiling

Poor drying technology and technique resulting in poor milled rice

6. Problems relating to gender in rice postharvest system

Rice harvesting is dominated by men.

・ Improvement of the parboiling practices to encourage men to take part.

・ With the current practice men are likely to dominate rice harvesting and milling for a long time to come except if the labor required is reduced.

・ Development of efficient and environmental sustainable source of energy.

・ If well packaged men may consider taking strategic part in marketing of milled rice

・ Development of appropriate technology

Rice parboiling are dominated by women

Milling processes are dominated by men.

Breaking of firewood and rice drying are mainly carried out by youths.

Paddy marketing is dominated by men and milled rice trade by women.

As scale of technology is increased, women are pushed out of rice business