Analytical equipment/method and reference

Parameter (s)

Cyberscan pH 20 meter

PH, Eh

Cyberscan low 20 conductivity meter

Temperature, conductivity, TDS

Microprocessor Oximeter 196

Dissolved Oxygen (DO)

Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (ASS)

K, Na, Heavy metals

Spectrophotometrically by:

(a) Turbidimetry using barium chloride [12]

Sulphate, SO 4 2

(b) Diazotisation method [13]

Nitrite (NO2)

(c) As nitrite after reduction in a calcium reduction system [13]

Nitrite (NO3)

(d) Molybdenum blue method [13] .

Phosphate ( PO 4 3 )

(e) Formazine standards according to HACH

Turbidity (NTU)

(f) Nesslerization method [12]

Ammonium ( NH 4 + )

Titrimetrically using:

(a) Silver nitrate and potassium dichromate as indicator [14]

Chloride (Cl)

(b) Complexometric technique using EDTA as Titrant [12] .

Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (mg)

(c) Titration using indicators like muraxide etc.

Total hardness, bizabonate and alkalinity

Difference between initial oxygen concentration in sample and concentration after 5 days incubation in DO bottles at 20˚C [12]

Biochemical Oxygen demand, BOD5