Key Concepts

Applicability Gap

Social Capital

Social status/class Access to benefits

Capital transfer/capital sharing Social structure reproduction

Deficit framing; no logical solution to provide capital to all; cannot explain agency/how some students access capital

Community Cultural Wealth (CCW)

Nondeficit framing Experience-centered

Role of the family/community Narratives/storytelling

Six forms of capital

Developed/validated among persons of color, not necessarily valid for first-generation students from other backgrounds; limited attention to agency

Funds of Knowledge (FoK)

Nondeficit framing Learning participation Informal knowledge

Role of the family/community Personal agency

Dark funds of knowledge

Lack of attention to power, class, and economic barriers; no contextual frame for decision making

Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT)

Self-efficacy Personal agency Decision making Aspiration

Environmental context Career/academic intent

Incomplete regarding capital, systems, and structures