Independent Variable

Green Supply Chain Management

Greenhouse Emissions

They are gases that have been produced with the process of production according to the Kyoto Protocol [17]

measured using tons of CO2 [22]


Processing of waste (i.e. undesirable or futile materials) back to the material cycle with the goal that contamination of the earth is limited [18]

measured using a percentage of materials reused out of the total materials used in the industry through one whole year [22]


Anything that adds adverse effects to the

an environment without adding value [19]

Measured using the tons of resources discarded or unused resources throughout the year.


Renewable Energy

Energy could be utilized over and over [20]

Measured using the megawatts of energy generated from renewable resources.


Dependent Variables



measures productivity by uncovering how a lot of benefits an organization creates with the cash investors have contributed [21]

Measured as a percentage of net income after tax to total equity [21]

ROE = net income Total Equity