Coagulation is the phenomenon by which colloids are destabilized, conducting to their agglomeration [17] [18] [19] .

Flocculation, clarification

Practically, the coagulation technology is composed of coagulation, flocculation and clarification (separation unit stages) [20] [21] [22] . Following the coagulation, the destabilized particles and other precipitates produce agglomerates that require growing further into larger flocs. This stage is named flocculation. The agglomerated flocs can then be separated utilizing decantation (or flotation) and filtration methods [23] [24] [25] .

Coagulants, flocculants

Throughout the coagulation and flocculation stages, chemical products are usually injected; such agents are known as coagulants and flocculants, respectively.