Challenge #1

The first dare is how to avert the generation of poisonous by-products like chlorates or trihalomethanes (THMs). Chlorates are produced via oxidation of hypochlorite or via its disproportionation that is a natural phenomenon that also happens during the aging of the disinfected water. Chlorates provoke grave health issues because as they touch the nervous system. The second kind of poisonous species is even more polemic. Indeed, chlorinated chemicals are produced from the integration of organic matter with active species of chlorine, and such products are linked to cancer and many so grave diseases. Such compounds are not limited to the EC technology since they are were related to classical chlorination implementation.

Challenge #2

The second dare is to utilize substitutes for mixed metal oxide anodes, like diamond-like coatings, having the ability of not only oxidizing chloride ions but also forming more efficacious agents, comprising ‚óŹOH. If employing such electrodes, issues related to the generation of toxic species could worsen, due to the well-established formation of perchlorates through chlorates oxidation. Such novel electrode materials could improve the work of additional oxidizing reagents (like ozone and peroxosalts [78] [87] [88] ) to aid in dealing with resistant pathogens [89] [90] . Issues could be resolved via following some procedures such as more optimized residence period among water and the anodes in the electrolyzer, and a sufficiently big specific current and the cathodic generation of H2O2 to avoid more oxidation of chlorine to chlorates and perchlorates [91] .